2006 The Archaic Conference at Orono: A Critique and Overview. In The Archaic of the Far Northeast, edited by David Sanger and M. A. P. Renouf, pp. 437–72. The University of Maine Press, Orono. Published posthumously, this contribution constitutes a constructive critique of 13 papers presented at the Archaic Conference held in Orono, Maine, in October 2001. The papers range in time from 6,000 BCE to 1,000 BCE and in space from Maine to Quebec and Newfoundland-Labrador. The author concludes by noting the positive development whereby many of the contributions deal with subject matter that extends beyond narrowly defined regions and the corresponding extension of “comparative perspectives and problem orientations.” He warns, however, that this in turn will ultimately require the revision of current classification schemes and nomenclature. With respect to the latter, he suggests that the very term “Archaic” is derogatory.
2004a A History of the Native People of Canada. Volume III, Part 1 (A.D. 500 to European Contact). Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 152. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau. Given the amount of data available pertaining to this time period, the author found it necessary to split this volume into two parts. Part 1 deals with Maritime Algonquian, St. Lawrence Iroquois, Ontario Iroquois, Glen Meyer/Western Basin, and Northern Algonquian cultures. As with all of the volumes in this series, the contents are arranged in the following manner: Précis, Cultural Origins and Descendants, Technology, Subsistence, Settlement Patterns, Cosmology, External Relationships, Human Biology, Inferences on Society, and Limitations in the Evidence.
2004b The Gordon Island North Site and Cultural Settlement Distributions Along the Upper St. Lawrence River Valley. In A Passion for the Past: Papers in Honour of James F. Pendergast, edited by James V. Wright and Jean-Luc Pilon, pp. 321–93. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 164. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau. This paper represents an examination of the pre-European human past along a significant portion of the St. Lawrence River which, acting as a link between the Atlantic coast and the mainland interior, functioned as a major communication route for many different cultures for many thousands of years. Starting with a description of the Gordon Island North site (BbGa-2), the author then examines settlement patterns along the Upper St. Lawrence River and, finally, discusses “… a selective consideration” of some of the non-ceramic artifacts excavated from Lake St. Francis island sites. Overall, a tremendous amount of mobility and cultural interaction is apparent. Methodological considerations include the (mis-)use of artifacts deemed to be culturally diagnostic (as opposed to entire assemblages), ¼ inch screening, and making cultural taxonomic assertions on the basis of a single class of material culture (e.g., ceramics).
2004c James F. Pendergast: Blurring the Amateur–Professional Dichotomy. In A Passion for the Past: Papers in Honour of James F. Pendergast, edited by James V. Wright and Jean-Luc Pilon, pp. 1–4. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 164. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau. Intended as a brief introduction to the man honoured in this publication, this paper emphasizes the important contribution to Canadian archaeology of both amateurs and professionals. Retiring from the Canadian Army as a Lieutenant-Colonel, James F. Pendergast became the Assistant Director of the National Museum of Man where he initiated the ongoing Mercury publication series and took up the task of trying to understand the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a topic largely abandoned since the time of William J. Wintemberg. Jim Pendergast authored seven monographs and more than 50 articles and, among other awards, received an honourary doctorate from McGill University.
2003 Preface. (Eng./Fr.) In Île aux Allumettes: L’Archaïque supérieur dans l’Outaouais, edited by Norman Clermont, Claude Chapdelaine and Jacques Cinq-Mars, pp. 11–28, Paléo-Québec 30. Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, Montréal and the Musée canadien des civilisations, Gatineau. Concluding that this volume, together with one previously published on the nearby Morrison Island site, should be considered mandatory reading for anyone interested in the Northeast North American Archaic, in part because together they offer detailed examinations of a body of data remarkably unplagued by the problem of cultural admixture, the author congratulates the respective authors of the different chapters for their insightful contributions and discusses select issues raised therein.
2002 Elmer Harp’s Contribution to Bush Archaeology. In Honoring Our Elders: A History of Eastern Arctic Archaeology, edited by William W. Fitzhugh, Stephen Loring and Daniel Odess, pp. 47–52, Contributions to Circumpolar Anthropology 2. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The author focuses upon Harp’s influence on his own work in bush archaeology (“bush” being defined as “the Boreal Forest and Lichen Woodland vegetation provinces”). This included excavation of the Aberdeen and Grant Lake sites and, more generally, the inspiration afforded by Harp’s interest in regions showing evidence of habitation by different archaeological cultures (permitting the examination of such issues as cultural replacement and interaction), his description of artifacts in a manner conducive to use by other scholars, his insightful interpretations, the relevance of his interests to broad anthropological considerations, his excellent sketches of archaeological sites and topography, and the fact that he was the first to undertake archaeological reconnaissance in a number of different regions.
1999a Archaeological Cultural Constructs and Systematics: A Proposed Classification System for Canada. In Taming the Taxonomy: Toward a New Understanding of Great Lakes Archaeology, edited by Ronald F. Williamson and Christopher M. Watts, pp. 289–300. eastendbooks, Toronto. Prepared in response to a session held during the 1997 joint meeting of the Ontario Archaeological Society and the Midwest Archaeological Conference, the author laments the all too often parochial foci of Canadian archaeologists when it comes to the development of broad spatial and temporal cultural taxonomies. As there is no more important tool to research of any type than classification, the author attempts to redress this shortcoming by offering his own conception of a national cultural taxonomy. This is the same taxonomy utilized in his A History of the Native People of Canada series and is presented in the hope that it will foster further discussion and in the full expectation that it will be refined over time. Indeed, it was designed to be spatially and temporally flexible for just this purpose. Utilizing environmentally premised nomenclature, it is also hierarchical, proceeds from the general to the specific, and will facilitate communication between professionals and amateurs alike.
1999b A History of the Native People of Canada. Volume II (1,000 B.C.–A.D. 500). Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 152. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau. The second volume of this series deals with the period 1000 BCE to 500 CE and includes chapters on Late Maritime culture, Late Great Lakes–St. Lawrence culture, Late Eastern Shield culture, Late Western Shield culture, Late Plains culture, Late Plateau culture, Late West Coast culture, Late Northwest Interior culture and Middle Palaeo-Eskimo culture. Like the first volume, each chapter contains the following subsections: Précis, Cultural Origins and Descendants, Technology, Subsistence, Settlement Patterns, Cosmology, External Relationships, Human Biology, Inferences on Society, and Limitations in the Evidence.
1999c In the Eye of the Beholder, or What is a Meadowood Point? Kewa 5&6:20–27. Written in response to an article by Chris Ellis, “Some Sites and Artifacts I Have Known: the Welke-Tonkonoh Site Revisited, or What is a Meadowood Point?,” that appeared in the Ontario Archaeological Society, London Chapter newsletter Kewa, Wright addresses criticisms therein that stemmed from a section of his own A History of the Native People of Canada, Volume II. He clarifies his interpretation of this point type as “the first convincing evidence for the diffusion of the bow and arrow weapon system into eastern North America,” buttresses his warning against its use as a cultural marker by pointing out that it appears in other than Meadowood assemblages, and emphasizes that measurements of the haft portion and neck are of greater utility than the maximum thickness.
1998 Foreword. In Iroquoian Peoples of the Land of Rocks and Water, A.D. 1000-1650: A Study in Settlement Archaeology, 4 volumes, by William D. Finlayson, pp. xi–xvi. London Museum of Archaeology, London. In this introduction to William D. Finlayson’s mammoth community settlement study of the Crawford Lake region, the author expresses admiration for both the scope and originality of the work described therein. Of particular note was the refinement of his own Middle Ontario Iroquois dates (1300 CE to 1400 CE) to 1330 CE to 1504 CE made possible by the innovative use of varves correlated with archaeological data and the discussion of further evidence supporting his Conquest Theory. The primary significance of these volumes, however, is in the provision of data suitable for use by other researchers with different research foci. The author does, however, suggest that Finlayson might in the future amplify his Crawford Lake study by incorporating data from individual house structures which could potentially provide a wealth of information relevant to clans and other social groups.
1996 A History of the Native People of Canada: Genesis of a Synthesis. Ontario Archaeology 62:4–9. This short paper constitutes a description of how the author came to write the first synthesis of Canadian archaeology, the multi-volume A History of the Native People of Canada. Fully aware of the idiosyncratic nature of such a task and the risks inherent in gathering together a morass of theretofore strictly regional data and organizing it into a coherent whole, he nevertheless set upon this course of action because he saw the need for a general reference work of such scope that would be accessible to both scholarly and lay audiences.
1995a A History of the Native People of Canada, Volume I (10,000–1,000 B.C.). Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 152. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau. The first volume in this series concerns the period 10,000 to 1000 BCE and includes chapters on Palaeo-Indian culture, Northwestern Palaeo-Arctic culture, Early and Middle Archaic complexes, Early Maritime culture, Early Great Lakes–St. Lawrence culture, Plano culture, Early Shield culture, Early Plains culture, Early Plateau culture, Southwestern Coastal culture, Northwestern Coastal culture, Early Northwest Interior culture, Middle Maritime culture, Middle Great Lakes-St. Lawrence culture, Middle Shield culture, Middle Plains culture, Middle Plateau culture, Early West Coast culture, Middle Northwest Interior culture and Early Palaeo-Eskimo culture. Each of these chapters contains the following subsections: Précis, Cultural Origins and Descendants, Technology, Subsistence, Settlement Patterns, Cosmology, External Relationships, Human Biology, Inferences on Society, and Limitations in the Evidence.
1995b Three Dimensional Reconstructions of Iroquoian Longhouses: A Comment. Archaeology of Eastern North America 23:9–21. Written in response to a paper by Mima Kapches previously published in the same journal, the author applauds her for tackling the issue of longhouse spatial patterning, while disagre eing with her conclusions as based on an inadequate understanding of all of the factors affecting longhouse construction and a misinterpretation of the longhouse reconstruction efforts undertaken in conjunction with the excavation of the Nodwell site. As with most archaeolo gical research, it is important to utilize data from a variety of sources including historical documentation, linguistics, as well as the archaeological record. However, in addition to these, Wright argues that the topic of longhouse construction necessitates an understanding of the intrinsic properties of the building materials involved. Decay resistance, strength, elasticity versus rigidity, and ratio of length to butt diameter were all crucial considerations in the selection of the poles just as weight, strength, pliability and combustibility would have affected the choice of bark with which to sheath them. Kapches advocated the view that longhouse roofs were formed by bending the wall posts over the interior frames and lashing them at the peak. Wright deemed this improbable as the post mould diameters would have had to be much larger than the archaeological record indicates they were, the tension on the walls which Kapches felt would strengthen the roof structure would have resulted in oval-shaped post moulds, and the poles probably would have broken under the force to which they were subjected. Instead, the author interprets the available evidence as indicating that the true strength of longhouses would have been the frame, and the function of exterior walls would have been primarily for the attachment of bark sheathing.
1994a Comment on Spence’s ”Mortuary Programmes of the Early Ontario Iroquoians”. Ontario Archaeology 58:23–24. Pleased to note that, in contrast to many who have voiced doubts concerning the Early Ontario Iroquois stage of the Ontario Iroquois Tradition, Mike Spence attempted to support his conclusions with specific data, Wright nevertheless rejects Spence’s conclusions on the grounds that: (1) a single aspect of a society, in this case mortuary practice, cannot be used to accept or reject a cultural construct such as the Ontario Iroquois Tradition, (2) the mortuary database is flawed because context is uncertain in several of the cited examples, (3) evidence attributed to Pickering was actually Glen Meyer, and, (4) there were some settlement pattern classificatory issues. Despite these concerns, however, Wright applauded Spence for his presentation of new evidence and for introducing innovative ways of assessing it.
1994b The Prehistoric Transportation of Goods in the St. Lawrence River Basin. In Prehistoric Exchange Systems in North America, edited by Timothy G. Baugh and Jonathon E. Ericson, pp. 47–71. Plenum Press, New York. The St. Lawrence River and its associated tributaries have long functioned in a manner akin to a super highway thereby permitting the diffusion of ideas and the spread of people and material items over a large part of North America. Focusing on archaeological evidence of past exchange networks in this region, which the author indicates probably involved both long-distance trading parties and successive hand-to-hand exchanges, the material considered ranges from Plano to Woodland and includes a discussion of specific items, including: silica, native copper, fireclay, galena, and marine faunal remains (exclusive of shell).
1994c Before European Contact. In Aboriginal Ontario: Historical Perspectives on the First Nations, edited by Edward S. Rogers and Donald B. Smith, pp. 21–38. Ontario Historical Studies Series. Dundurn Press, Toronto. This paper constitutes a concise introduction to the cultural taxonomy of the Native occupants of Ontario for the past 11,000 years. This includes: (1) the Palaeo-Indian Period (9000 BCE–5000 BCE) which began with the wide-ranging Clovis people, some of whom evolved into the Plano culture; (2) the Archaic Period (5000 BCE–1000 BCE) which includes the Shield Archaic culture that developed out of the previous Plano culture in Northern Ontario and probably culminated in the ancestors of the historic Ojibwa, Cree, Algonquin and Montagnais, and the Laurentian Archaic which developed in the hardwood forests of Southern Ontario; and, (3) the Woodland Period (1000 BCE–European Contact) which is characterised by the introduction of pottery. The Initial Woodland (1000 BCE–1000 CE) includes the Meadowood, Point Peninsula, Saugeen and Laurel cultures. Meadowood “eventually changed or was absorbed” into Point Peninsula which itself changed with the adoption of certain cultural features from the Ohio Hopewell culture. Saugeen culture was also located in southern Ontario and shared many cultural features. What happened to it is unknown but it may have evolved into Princess Point culture about which relatively little is known except that it was the first to adopt corn. Laurel culture was widespread in Northern Ontario and other Canadian provinces. The Terminal Woodland Period (1000 CE–European Contact) includes the Ontario and St. Lawrence Iroquois in southern Ontario and pre-European Native groups from which the historic Algonquian-speaking Cree, Algonquin and Ojibwa evolved.
1993 (with D. M. Wright) Iroquoian Archaeology: It’s the Pits. In Essays in St. Lawrence Iroquoian Archaeology: Selected Papers in Honour of J. V. Wright, edited by James F. Pendergast and Claude Chapdelaine, pp. 1-7. Occasional Papers in Northeastern Archaeology No. 8. Copetown Press, Dundas, Ontario. This paper discusses some of the pit contents from the four-acre early sixteenth-century St. Lawrence Iroquoian Maynard–McKeown village site with an emphasis upon items retrieved via the processing of almost 27 tonnes of pit matrix from more than 1,000 features. Of particular note was the identification of a heretofore unrecognized St. Lawrence Iroquoian utilized flake industry, the presence of miniscule fragments of mollusc shell indicative of off-site processing, fish bone toothbrushes, diseased adult human teeth possibly hidden in house-pits for fear of their use in witchcraft, the probable remnants of a medicine bundle, nested pottery vessels and a deer bone feature. The authors stress the importance of processing pit fill without relying on ¼ inch screen sieving: a point well illustrated by their recovery of the only extant evidence of contact between the St. Lawrence Iroquoians and Europeans—a small iron awl.
1992a Une critique sur les aspects démographiques et la migration tardive des Iroquoiens. Recherches amérindiennes au Québec XXII(4):29–32. In a special issue of the journal devoted to the debate surrounding the in situ development of the Iroquoian populations of the Northeast, the author responds to an article by Dean R. Snow titled “L’augmentation de la population chez les groupes iroquoiens et ses conséquences sur l’étude de leurs origines.”
1992b The Conquest Theory of the Ontario Iroquois Tradition: A Reassessment. Ontario Archaeology 54:3–15. Approximately a quarter of a century after he first posited the cultural taxonomy known as the Ontario Iroquois Tradition, the author revisits the construct insofar as it concerns the theorized conquest of Glen Meyer by Pickering to assess its continued utility in light of new evidence and to address some of the criticisms that have been levelled against it. Assessing a variety of data, including but not limited to settlement patterns and ceramics, the author concludes that the available archaeological evidence continues to support the theory.
1990a (with D. M. Wright) A News Item from the McKeown Site. Arch Notes 90(5):4, 32. This short piece documents the discovery of the first solid archaeological evidence of contact between the St. Lawrence Iroquoians and Europeans—a small iron awl excavated from a defensive trench at the early sixteenth-century Maynard–McKeown site. Notably, this evidence would have been lost if the decision had not been made to flotate 27 tonnes of material from the site.
1990b Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650: A Critique. In Archaeology of Southern Ontario to A.D. 1650, edited by Chris J. Ellis and Neal Ferris, pp. 493–503. Occasional Publication No. 5, London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, London. Speaking of the role of syntheses as “an essential advancement of knowledge,” Wright congratulates the authors of this contributed volume for their respective roles in creating a synthesis of Ontario archaeological understanding to date. Offering constructive criticism on each chapter, additional detail is frequently supplied and, occasionally, a differing interpretation. He concludes by expressing great hope for the future of archaeological research in Ontario, noting that “as archaeological knowledge expands, so do the opportunities to actually begin to understand how past societies evolved.”
1988 Québec Prehistory. Canada’s Visual History Series, Volume 79. National Museum of Man and the National Film Board of Canada, Ottawa. Intended as an aid to teachers, this bilingual package contains a textual description of Quebec’s past as known through archaeology, 30 slides of artifacts and maps, references for suggested reading and suggested classroom activities.
1987a Archaeological Evidence for the Use of Furbearers in North America. In Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America, edited by Milan Novak, James A. Baker, Martyn E. Obbard and Bruce Malloch, pp. 3-12. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto. Intended for a non-archaeological audience, the author describes the use of furbearers by Canada’s past Native peoples. He notes that most of these populations subsisted almost entirely by hunting. Furthermore, the hides and bones of animals were used for a variety of important purposes; including, clothing, shelters, tools and watercraft. Despite such limitations in the archaeological evidence as off-site processing and artifact decay, it is apparent that furbearers fulfilled a symbolic role that archaeologists can study. Specific archaeological evidence relevant to furbearers is provided for: Beaver, Muskrat, Coyote, Wolf, Arctic Fox, Red Fox/Grey Fox, Marten/Fisher/Short-tailed Weasel/Mink/Otter and Lynx.
1987b Contributions of the Physical and Natural Sciences to Archaeological Interpretation, An Introduction. Diversa III(2):46-48. Describing the symposium “Science in Archaeology: Contributions of the Physical and Natural Sciences to Archaeological Interpretation,” which took place during the annual meeting of the Royal Society of Canada in Hamilton in 1987, the author congratulates the contributors and urges the reader to follow their example by embracing a broader perspective in archaeological practice thereby allowing developments in other disciplines to favourably impact archaeology and vice versa.
1987c Historical Atlas of Canada: From the Beginning to 1800, Volume I. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. The nine plates authored or co-authored by Wright represent a unique cartographic representation of Canada’s Native past and include the following: (1) The Plano People, 8500–6000 BCE (with Arthur Roberts, V.K. Prest and J.-S.Vincent); (2) Cultural Sequences, 8000–4000 BCE (with V. K. Prest and J.-S.Vincent); (3) Cultural Sequences, 4000–1000 BCE; (4) Cultural Sequences, 1000 BCE–500 CE; (5) Cultural Sequences, 500 CE–European Contact; (6) Iroquoian Agricultural Settlement (with R. Fecteau); (7) Prehistoric Trade (with Roy L. Carlson); (8) Cosmology; and, (9) Population and Subsistence (with Conrad E. Heidenreich). The author also wrote a textual introduction to the plates (pages 1–6) and held overall responsibility for the archaeological content of the volume.
1987d The Roebuck Site: A St. Lawrence Iroquois Prehistoric Site. In XIIth INQUA Congress: Quaternary of the Ottawa Region and Guides for Day Excursions, edited by R. J. Fulton, pp. 55–58. A brief introduction to the history of the 1450 CE to 1550 CE St. Lawrence Iroquoian Roebuck site for quaternary researchers participating in an international congress, this paper describes the location of the village, historical information relating to the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, and some of what its excavation has brought to light including: the importance of squash to the diet of the people who lived there, their involvement in warfare, evidence of long-distance trade, and insights into their burial practices. The anaerobic environment of a portion of the site allowed for the preservation of wooden artifacts and delicate plant food remains.
1986a Mapping Canada’s Prehistory. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada I:203–06 (Reprinted in Arch Notes 88(1):16–19). This short paper describes the processes involved in creating the cartographic plates for Volume 1 of the Historical Atlas of Canada. Two of the significant difficulties dealt with included the need to establish “cultural constructs across Canada that were approximately equivalent in terms of archaeological taxonomy” and appropriate time periods.
1986b Ontario Research Update. Ottawa Archaeologist 13(3):3–8. This report describes the development of archaeology over the preceding decade and includes: an assessment of topical focus, popularization efforts, excavations undertaken in the province, improvements to archaeological understanding, experimental archaeology, notable publications, legal issues, institution creation, the contributions of physical anthropologists, avocational efforts, innovative methods such as mass spectrometer dating and lithic fingerprinting, and CRM. In conclusion, the author exhorts his readers to work toward further rationalization of archaeological practices within the contexts of CRM, universities, and museums; balance research efforts; and respond to the “public thirst” for archaeological understanding.
1985a The Development of Prehistory in Canada: 1935–1985. American Antiquity 50(2):421–33. As part of a special fiftieth anniversary issue of American Antiquity focused on the development of archaeological practice in the Americas, the author’s contribution stands out as the lone Canadian perspective. The text is divided into sections as follows: Antiquarianism, Natural Science and Darwinian Biology, Boasian Anthropology, the Ascendancy of Anti-Historical Anthropology and the Alienation of Archaeology, Binfordian Positivism, Archaeological Cultural Resource Management, Main Drift of Archaeology and Its Resources, and Prospects. He offers great hope for the future of Canadian archaeology but expresses a few prescient cautions as well.
1985b The Comparative Radiometric Dating of Two Prehistoric Ontario Iroquoian Villages. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 9(1):57–68. Utilizing samples from the charred and uncharred bones of different animal species (bear, deer, beaver, fish and human), wood charcoal, carbonized corn and clam shell, this paper compares radiocarbon dates from the fourteenth century Middleport Nodwell site and the mid-fifteenth to mid-sixteenth century St. Lawrence Iroquoian McIvor site. Ultimately a cautionary tale, the author describes some of the hazards posed by these different materials; for example, that plants which utilize the C4 photosynthetic pathway (like corn) produce late dates because they discriminate for the heavier carbon isotopes (as does bone collagen), that diet affects dates derived from bone, that the presence of old carbonates in fish and clam shell likewise result in late dates, that even contemporaneous wood can exhibit a ±100 year variation, and, finally, the possibility that an exchange between samples and their matrix (e.g., inorganic carbonates in a region dominated by limestone) might occur in any given situation.
1984a The Cultural Continuity of the Northern Iroquoian-Speaking Peoples. In Extending the Rafters: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Iroquoian Studies, edited by Michael K. Foster, Jack Campesi and Marianne Mithun, pp. 283–99. State University of New York Press, Albany. Eschewing migration as an explanation for the presence of Northeastern North American Iroquoian populations in a region surrounded by Algonquian-speaking peoples, the author hypothesizes their in situ development as far back as the Laurentian Archaic. Within the context of this larger issue, the difficulty of identifying ethnicity in the archaeological record is also discussed.
1984b Publish or Perish: Archaeology and the Public. The Ottawa Archaeologist 11(3):9–14. The purpose of this paper is to exhort the archaeological community to communicate the results of their research in ways amenable to the general public. In part, this is a matter of responsibility. It is also self-serving: the general public cannot be expected to fund and otherwise support the protection, development and communication of something they know nothing about. And, with so many archaeological sites threatened by economic and natural forces, there is a desperate need for such support. The process of creating popular syntheses of archaeological findings will have the added benefit of instigating reflection with respect to theoretical assumptions. Moreover, such works hold the potential to promote collaboration with scholars in other disciplines who would likely be unwilling to wade through technical reports.
1982a La circulation de biens archéologiques dans le bassin du Saint-Laurent au cours de la préhistoire. Recherches amérindiennes au Québec XII(3):193–205. The St. Lawrence River has facilitated communication and exchange of material culture for the past 9,000 years. One means by which these may be studied by archaeologists is the petrographic analysis of lithic items. The author uses evidence derived from use of this method and more to demonstrate the considerable temporal and spatial extent of exchanges in this region.
1982b Archaeological Cultural Resource Management – Preserving the Past for What Purpose? In Directions in Archaeology: A Question of Goals, pp. 263–68. Proceedings of the 14th annual conference. The Archaeological Society of the University of Calgary, Calgary. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that archaeological excavation needs to result in the advancement of archaeological understanding and not simply “preservation, assessment and management of the archaeological resource.” These are not acceptable ends in themselves and the author warns that, ultimately, this misplaced emphasis will have disastrous consequences for archaeology in Canada. He offers possible solutions to this unfortunate situation.
1981a Ontario Prehistory. Canada’s Visual History Series, Volume 45. National Museum of Man and the National Film Board of Canada, Ottawa. Intended as an aid to teachers, this bilingual package contains a textual description of Ontario’s past as known through archaeology, 30 slides of artifacts and maps, references for suggested reading and suggested classroom activities.
1981b Prehistory of the Canadian Shield. In Subarctic, edited by June Helm, pp. 86–96. Handbook of the North American Indians, Volume 6, William C. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Archaeological evidence from non-coastal areas of the “Precambrian Shield regions of Labrador, northern Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, extreme northeastern Alberta, and the southern half of Keewatin District and the eastern edge of Mackenzie District of the Northwest Territories” is notably homogeneous through time and across space, a characteristic that the author argues is a consequence of the region’s physiography.
1981c The Glen Site: An Historic Cheveux Relevés Campsite on Flowerpot Island, Georgian Bay, Ontario. Ontario Archaeology 35:45–59. In this paper, the author describes his excavations at the Glen Site, a very late prehistoric to early seventeenth century Cheveux Relevés fall fishing campsite. As the Algonquian inhabitants of this and related sites shared the same pottery tradition as adjacent Iroquoian populations, an association attesting to a relationship also recorded in historical documents, an effort is made to differentiate between these groups on the basis of their material culture. Comparison of the artifacts from the Glen site with those derived from stratum II of the multi-component, summer–fall occupied Michipicoten site, the multi-component summer–fall occupied Pic site, and the roughly contemporaneous Iroquoian Sidey-Mackay village site, permitted the following observations: (1) pottery vessels were more prominent at the Iroquoian site than lithic tools whereas the opposite phenomena was true at the three Algonquian sites; (2) there was an east–west cline in the involvement of Algonquians in the Iroquoian pottery tradition; (3) Algonquian pots tended to be smaller, friable, with popular sixteenth-century Iroquoian motifs applied to low-collared seventeenth-century vessels; (4) “Small stone tools, unifacially retouched and generally trianguloid in outline, are restricted to the Algonquian components and have the highest incidence at the western-most compo nent”; (5) irregular slate knives are peculiar to Algonquian technology; (6) end-scrapers dominate the lithic portion of the Iroquoian site collection but make an infrequent appearance at the Algonquian sites. They are also longer and sometimes exhibit traces of retouch and bipolar crushing; (7) Iroquoian arrowheads may be longer, wider, and thicker, and (8) wedges, generally common on Algonquian sites, occur infrequently at the Iroquoian settlement.
1980 The Role of Attribute Analysis in the Study of Iroquoian Prehistory. In Proceedings of the 1979 Iroquois Pottery Conference, pp. 21–26. Research Records No. 13. Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester. The author argues that, while typological analyses of ceramics have contributed valuable insights into past behaviour, the time has come to use a finer tool for such research: attribute analysis. Seven propositions are offered that cumulatively support this conclusion.
1979a The Shield Archaic: A Critique of a Critique. Manitoba Archaeological Quarterly 3(3–4):30–35. Responding to a review of the author’s The Shield Archaic (1972), Wright addresses several misconceptions and errors. He concludes by emphasizing the need of the reviewer in question to support his statements with evidence.
1979b Québec Prehistory. National Museum of Man and Van Nostrand Reinhold Press, Toronto. Written for a popular audience, this volume describes the archaeology of Quebec in the following manner: The Palaeo-Indian Period (Clovis Culture, Plano Culture), The Archaic Period (Laurentian Culture, Shield Culture, Maritime Culture), The Woodland Period (The Initial Woodland Period, including Meadowood Culture, Point Peninsula Culture, and Laurel Culture and The Terminal Woodland Period including The St. Lawrence Iroquois, The Algonkin, The Cree, The Montagnais, The Micmac-Malecite, and The Abenaki), Palaeo-Eskimo and Thule Cultures. The French edition of this book, translated by Roger J. M. Marois, was published in 1980.
1978 The Implications of Probable Early and Middle Archaic Projectile Points from Southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 2:59–78. The author offers four proposals concerning Early and Middle Archaic peoples in south eastern Canada and, specifically, Ontario. This includes the time of occupation by those of southern origin, the spatial area of habitation, an assessment of the Fitting–Ritchie hypothesis regarding the game carrying capacity of essentially coniferous forests, and possible associations between late Palaeo-Indians and Early Archaic migrants.
1977 Trends and Consequences in Canadian Prehistory. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 1:1–14. The author emphasizes the need for archaeology to situate itself decisively between the natural and social sciences, separate instruction from anthropology in universities, and broaden its use of theory and methods. Ultimately, the message is that the discipline desperately needs to establish an identity for itself. Appended comments are provided by: Bruce Drewitt, Patrick Plumet, Bruce G. Trigger, Richard G. Forbis and Roy L. Carlson.
1976a (with Polly Koezur) The Potato Island Site, District of Kenora, Ontario. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 51. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. Excavated by Polly Koezur and reported upon by Wright, this volume describes the stratified spring-to-summer occupied, Northern Ontario, Potato Island site. Due to considerable disturbance to the deposits, however, only the Archaic and Terminal Woodland levels could be isolated. Selkirk and Blackduck ceramics are suggested to be contemporaneous but a conclusive statement in this regard cannot be made because of the disturbed nature of the contexts from which they were excavated. The material culture from the Potato Island site is described and compared with that of the similarly stratified McCluskey site located to the west of Thunder Bay. One observation resulting from this exercise is that there seems to be a pattern of poor bone utilization at these sites despite excellent bone preservation.
1976b The Grant Lake Site, Keewatin District, N.W.T. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 47. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. This report describes the results of the author’s excavation of the Grant Lake site, a primarily Agate Basin complex (Palaeo-Indian) site with multiple living floors. The site is strategically situated near a caribou crossing in an area that is also rich in trout. Materials pertaining to the Shield Archaic, Arctic Small Tool and Taltheilei traditions were also recovered.
1976c Six Chapters of Canada’s Prehistory. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. This volume was written for a general audience of those interested in Canada’s archaeological heritage and includes chapters on The Prehistoric Hunter, The Prehistoric Fisherman, The Prehistoric Farmer, The Prehistoric Toolmaker, The Prehistoric Trader and Prehistoric Houses.
1975 The Prehistory of Lake Athabasca: An Initial Statement. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 29. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. This volume addresses two hypotheses regarding the prehistory of the Lake Athabasca region: (1) that evidence of its use through time by Plains, Arctic, and Boreal Forest peoples corresponds with its proximity to these respective physiographic zones and corresponding climate fluctuations, and (2) there is an east/west dichotomy in the archaeological evidence that is respectively suggested to reflect utilization of these areas by Athabascan-speaking caribou hunters historically associated with the Chipewyans and a group of bison hunters, probably Athabascan-speakers related to the historic Beavers.
1974a Archaeological Taxonomy: Apples and Oranges. Bulletin of the Canadian Archaeological Association 6:206–09. The advancement of our understanding of the North American past has been hampered by poorly constructed cultural taxonomies. To properly study the relationships through time and space of archaeological cultures, it is necessary that the taxonomies we create utilize only those attributes that are pertinent to revealing relationships within a single tradition and between different cultural developments. Utilizing whole assemblages, rather than cultural markers, is important as is the equivalency of classificatory categories. Furthermore, it must be accepted that the process of classification is inherently continuous as it must allow for the incorporation of new evidence as it arises.
1974b The Nodwell Site. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 22. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. This monograph provides a thorough description of the excavation and analysis of the mid-fourteenth century (Middle Ontario Iroquois stage, Middleport substage) doublepalisaded Nodwell village site located in Port Elgin, Ontario. With the exception of middens which had been previously destroyed by ploughing and looting but could nevertheless be located by soil staining, the entire settlement of 12 longhouses (one of which was situated outside the palisade) was excavated. The completeness of this excavation offered a rare opportunity to examine hypothetical associations of intra-village habitation and social groups such as clans. Evidence of clans was not found but conservative versus progressive houses were identified. The site is unique because it is the only Iroquoian settlement that has been found in Bruce County, its excavation ties with William D. Finlayson’s excavation of the Thede site for the first utilization of flotation in Ontario, and part of the site was reconstructed permitting insights achievable only through experiment.
1972a Settlement Patterns at the Steward Site. Arch Notes 10:2–3. This paper constitutes a brief statement on the excavation of two house structures at the 1450 CE to 1500 CE St. Lawrence Iroquoian Steward site. On the basis of wider than normal in-house bunks (potentially reflecting a lack of concern for heat conservation), a relative dearth of interior house-pits, and extant faunal remains, the site is deemed to be a summer fishing campsite.
1972b The Shield Archaic. Publications in Archaeology No. 3. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. This volume outlines the Shield Archaic, a construct pertaining to archaeological evidence in the Boreal Forest of the Canadian Shield marked by spatial homogeneity and conservative development using evidence from habitation sites in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and the Keewatin District of the Northwest Territories. Four hypotheses are examined: (1) “The Shield Archaic evolved from a late Palaeo-Indian (Plano tradition) cultural base in the eastern Northwest Territories and probably the western portions of the Boreal Forest-Canadian Shield”; (2) “Plant and animal reoccupation of land freed by the retreating Laurentide ice permitted northwestern Plano-Shield Archaic hunters to expand, particularly in an easterly direction”; (3) “Cultural continuities between the Shield Archaic and subsequent developments in the Boreal Forest-Canadian Shield permit the speculation that the Shield Archaic people probably spoke an Algonkian language”; and, (4) “The Shield Archaic populations of the Keewatin District abandoned the area some time about 1000 B.C.”
1972c The Dougall Site. Ontario Archaeology 17:3–23. Describing salvage excavations at the severely disturbed Dougall site (BdGu-2) located on the west side of the narrows between Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching, the author states that the site was occupied “relatively continuously” for 2,000 years as a fish-camp. The earliest evidence found at the site pertains to Point Peninsula, followed by the entire Ontario Iroquois development in the region with an emphasis on the Huron, the Ojibwa and, eventually, nineteenth-and-twentieth century Euro-Canadians. Of particular interest is the observation that fish bone was disproportionately represented by cranial bones. The author interprets this as being due to on-site processing of fish and their subsequent removal to other settlements for consumption. It was also noted that, in support of statements in the ethnohistoric literature, there was a dearth of burnt fish bone.
1972d The Knechtel I Site, Bruce County, Ontario. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 4. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. The Knechtel I site is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Huron and excavation has shown that it was seasonally occupied from spring to fall for over 800 years beginning with Archaic peoples (Inverhuron Archaic) and culminating with the Initial Woodland (Saugeen culture). The excellent stratigraphy of the site permits assessment of the cultural deposits through time and the material culture suggests extra-societal contacts to the south and an economic shift from fishing to hunting that corresponded with lowering lake levels. The author proposes that the site was part of “an unbroken tradition, referred to as the Inverhuron tradition ... with a time span of more than 1,600 years.”
1972e The Aberdeen Site, Keewatin District, N.W.T. Mercury Series Archaeology Paper 2. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. With a single interlude, this caribou crossing located at the embouchure of the Thelon River into Aberdeen Lake was utilized on a seasonal basis for 7,000 years. The earliest evidence pertains to Palaeo-Indian populations, followed successively by Shield Archaic, Arctic Small Tool, Taltheilei Shale, Chipewyan and Caribou Eskimo hunters. Two house structures, both attributed to the Shield Archaic, are described, as well as a tool cache. Additional text includes sections on superpositional evidence and unprovenienced recoveries.
1972f Ontario Prehistory: An Eleven-Thousand-Year Archaeological Outline. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. Written for a general audience, this publication provides an overview of the archaeology of Ontario from the earliest cultures of the Palaeo-Indian period (Clovis and Plano), to those of the Archaic (Laurentian and Shield), to those of the Initial Woodland (Meadowood, Saugeen-Point Peninsula, Princess Point, Laurel), and finally to the Iroquoian tribes and confederacies and Algonkian bands of the Terminal Woodland Period (Huron, Petun, Neutral, Erie, St. Lawrence Iroquois). The French edition of this book, translated by Roger J. M. Marois, was published in 1981.
1971 The Nodwell Site: A Mid-14th Century Iroquois Village. Canadian Archaeological Association Bulletin 3:1-11. A preliminary statement of the joint National Museum of Man and Royal Ontario Museum excavation of the mid-fourteenth century Middleport substage Nodwell site (later expanded upon by the author in a 1974 monograph), this paper describes the excavation strategies employed which revealed 12 longhouses and a double palisade (but no middens), some of the interesting features encountered (e.g., a house outside of the stockade and dog burials), and discusses the presence of an Iroquoian settlement in a frontier region nearly 80 miles distant from its nearest cultural compatriots and hypothesizes regarding the reasons for its eventual abandonment.
1970 The Shield Archaic in Manitoba – A Preliminary Statement. In Ten Thousand Years: Archaeology in Manitoba, edited by Walter M. Hlady, pp. 29–45. Manitoba Archaeological Society, Altona, Manitoba. The author describes material culture derived from the stratified God’s Lake and Elk Island sites, outlines his conception of the Shield Archaic, and offers hypotheses concerning the origin and spread of this assemblage which can be found from the eastern Northwest Territories to Labrador; including: (1) “The Shield Archaic evolved from a late Paleo-Indian (Plano tradition) cultural base in the eastern Northwest Territories,” (2) “Plant and animal reoccupation of land freed by the retreating Laurentide ice permitted northern Plano-Shield Archaic hunters to expand; particularly in an easterly direction,” (3) “A cultural continuity exists between the Shield Archaic tradition and the following Laurel tradition,” and (4) “The Shield Archaic populations in the Keewatin District abandoned the area sometime prior to 1000 B.C.”
1969a The Destruction of Canada’s Prehistory. Canadian Archaeological Association Bulletin 1:5–11. (Reprinted in 1975 in Preserving the Canadian Heritage. Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa). This publication constitutes the presidential banquet address at the Second Annual Meeting of the Canadian Archaeological Association in 1969. Warning his colleagues about threats to archaeology from natural disasters, construction and ignorance, the author describes several means by which these could be mitigated, including organization, education and legislation.
1969b (with W. E. Taylor, Jr., Roscoe Wilmeth and W. N. Irving) Canada Before Cartier: A Prehistoric Outline. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. A short illustrated pamphlet prepared for a non-specialist audience, this publication briefly summarizes: (1) the history of Canadian archaeology; (2) the past as known with respect to “Canadian Eskimo Archaeology”, the “Prehistory of Eastern Canada”, the “Prehistory of Western Canada”; and, (3) archaeological fieldwork in 1966. It was reprinted from The Canada Year Book 1968.
1969c A Programme is Needed to Stop the Destruction of Prehistoric Remains. Science Forum 2(5):12–14. An adaptation of his presidential address to the Canadian Archaeological Association, this paper vehemently exhorts a change in the treatment of Canada’s non-renewable archaeological resources which are under dire threat from construction activities, looting, flooding, mining and, in fact, any “human or natural force that alters, buries, or floods the earth”. Giving examples from the past, present and future across the country, the author attempts to impress upon the reader the magnitude of the problem. Suggestions for addressing these issues are subsumed under the headings Organization, Education and Legislation.
1969d (with J. E. Anderson) The Bennett Site. Bulletin No. 229. National Museum of Man. Ottawa. Excavated during the fall of 1961 by J. N. Emerson, the author’s former mentor at the University of Toronto, and by the author during the spring and summer of 1962, the Bennett site is a 2.5-to-3-acre site classified as belonging to the mid-thirteenth century Pickering Branch of the Early Ontario Iroquois stage. This report, with a few notable exceptions, concerns the 1962 excavation. Exposed features include longhouses, of which three were identified and four extrapolated, a double palisade with intriguing defensive characteristics associated with a collection of probable missiles, 13 graves involving 15 individuals, five ceramic vessel concentrations, a dog burial, several deer skull burials and a cache of unfinished celts. Ceramic data were analyzed according to attributes rather than types and included an instance of ladder plait motif and the use of black paint. These data were compared with similar data from the Goessens site (Glen Meyer, Early Ontario Iroquois stage) and the Uren site (Uren substage, Middle Ontario Iroquois stage) to test the hypothesis that, if Pickering peoples, like those at Bennett, conquered Glen Meyer peoples, like those at Goessens, resulting in settle ments like Uren, then the archaeological record should reflect this through the dissimilarity of the Bennett and Goessens sites to one another, the corresponding similarity of Bennett and Uren, and the middling similarity of Goessens and Uren. This was, indeed, demonstrated with the exception of bossing which is apparently a chronological variable. Addition al excavated material included sherds belonging to juvenile vessels, a few smoking pipes relatively simple in form and decoration, an abundance of scrapers, four varieties of worked deer phalanges, a native copper bead and arrowheads of the triangular and incipient side-notched triangular variety. Of the former, one specimen plus a basal fragment were deemed reminiscent of the Levanna point type while the rest were interpreted as being more akin to the Madison point type.
1968a The Origins of New World Ceramics as Seen from Eastern Canada. In Proceedings, VIIIth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo and Kyoto. Volume III: Ethnology and Archaeology, pp. 325–26. Science Council of Japan, Tokyo. The author briefly discusses diffusion versus independent invention of ceramics in Eastern Canada. He concludes that all but “Norton check and linear stamped pottery of coastal Alaska and Yukon” and, possibly, some early pottery associated with the Laurel tradition, were the result of independent invention.
1968b The Michipicoten Site. In Contributions to Anthropology VI: Archaeology, pp. 1–85. Bulletin No. 224. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. Using ethnohistoric evidence to attribute the historic components of the stratified Michipicoten site to the Ojibwa and the direct historic approach to demonstrate continuous occupation by the same people to 1100 CE, this paper offers a description of features and cultural material excavated by the author in 1961. He concludes that ceramic material culture exhibits evidence of south and southeast influences but that lithic material culture was of local origin. Evidence of trade was limited.
1968c The Boreal Forest. In Science, History and Hudson Bay. Volume I, edited by C. S. Beals, pp. 55–68. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa. This paper presents a discussion of archaeological evidence as it pertains to Palaeo-Indians, Archaic and Woodland peoples of the Boreal Forest area flanking Hudson Bay. The homo geneity observed from the Archaic to Late Woodland stages is suggested to be primarily a reflection of environmental conditions.
1968d Cree Culture History in the Southern Indian Lake Region. In Contributions to Anthropology, VII: Archaeology, pp. 1–31. Bulletin No. 232. National Museum of Man, Ottawa. Archaeological surveys of the Southern Indian Lake region of Northern Manitoba and excavated evidence from the historic MacBride site and the stratified prehistoric Neck site indicate that significant occupation of the area was absent prior to the tenth century but present from that time to the historic period. Cultural development was seen to be “gradual and conservative” until the historic period and the direct historical approach allows it to be associated with a Cree band. Also discussed are Blackduck and Selkirk heartlands and areas between that exhibit evidence of blending, previous associations of Selkirk with the Cree, and the author’s suggestion that Blackduck may be identified with the Ojibwa.
1968e The Application of the Direct Historical Approach to the Iroquois and the Ojibwa. Ethnohistory 15(1):96–111. This short but detailed article offers a discussion of the relative potential and difficulties involved in applying the direct historical approach to two entirely different archaeological and historical entities: the former Iroquoian inhabitants of the province of Ontario and an amalgamation of Ojibwa bands from the north shores of the Upper Great Lakes. A central theme is social relations; for example, matrilocality for the Iroquois and patrilocality for the Ojibwa.
1967a Type and Attribute Analysis: Their Application to Iroquois Culture History. In Iroquois Culture, History, and Prehistory: Proceedings of the 1965 Conference on Iroquois Research, edited by Elisabeth Tooker, pp. 99–100. The University of the State of New York, the State Education Department, and the New York State Museum and Science Service, Albany (Reprinted with a short addendum in Ontario Archaeology (1968) 11:65–69). Wright discusses the pros and cons of type versus attribute analysis and ultimately favours attributes over types.
1967b The Laurel Tradition and the Middle Woodland Period. Bulletin No. 217. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. In this volume, the author offers his readers a preliminary synthesis of archaeological data pertaining to the Laurel Tradition in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Minnesota. Sixteen Northern Ontario sites are described before select components are compared with evidence from Minnesota, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and Middle Woodland complexes of the Northeast. Four hypotheses are considered: (1) “Early Woodland ceramics were originally derived from the south and are not of Asiatic origin,” (2) “The Laurel Tradition is of Asiatic origin,” (3) “The Hopewell Tradition is of southern derivation and not of Asiatic origin,” and (4) “The Point Peninsula and Saugeen foci and related foci in Canada and northeastern United States are the product of variable blending between the Asiatic-derived Laurel Tradition and the southern derived Hopewell Tradition onto an earlier, indigenous Archaic or Early Woodland cultural base.”
1967c The Pic River Site. In Contributions to Anthropology V, pp. 54–99. Bulletin No. 206. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. This report describes analyses undertaken on the stratified Pic River site located on the north shore of Lake Superior. Ranging from 950 CE to an early eighteenth-century Ojibwa occupation, the three components provide insights with respect to continuity, the effects of the fur trade and external relations. For instance, Blackduck focus ceramics are found throughout the sequence and are, therefore, not solely attributable to “… a late exodus to the north of one division of the Sioux” but may, in fact, relate to the Ojibwa as well as the Assiniboine. In contrast, the presence of different ceramic complexes in Stratum I may ultimately reflect greater mobility and fusion of bands in response to the fur trade. In Stratum II, a single anculosa bead signifies contact with the southeast while the appearance of Ontario Iroquois Tradition Pickering ceramics in Stratum III indicates that Blackduck and Pickering were “… coeval and … their ranges of influence overlapped.” The author concludes with apposite observations concerning ethnic determination in the region.
1966 The Ontario Iroquois Tradition. Bulletin No. 210. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. Focusing upon the Iroquoian populations of Ontario, with the exception of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the author utilizes a variety of material culture and settlement pattern evidence to construct a taxonomy to account for the broad regional patterns he observed dating to, approximately, 1000 CE to 1650 CE. During the Early Ontario Iroquois stage (1000 CE to 1300 CE), two groups referred to as Glen Meyer and Pickering were, respectively, seen to occupy lands west and east of the Niagara Escarpment. Toward the conclusion of this stage, a relative degree of homogenization was observed in the archaeological record, the nature of which led the author to hypothesize that Pickering conquered and absorbed Glen Meyer. The Middle Ontario Iroquois stage (1300 CE to 1400 CE) is divided into two sub-stages, Uren (1300 CE to 1350 CE) and Middleport (1350 CE to 1400 CE). The horizon concept is introduced during the Middleport substage to explain the rapid spread of an elaborate smoking pipe complex. The Late Ontario Iroquois stage (1400 CE to 1650 CE) witnessed a divergence from Middleport into the four historically known tribes/tribal confederacies: Huron, Petun, Neutral and Erie. The Huron–Petun branch was further divided into northern and southern divisions.
1965 A Regional Examination of Ojibwa Culture History. Anthropologica N.S. VII(2):191–227. The archaeology of the region north of the Upper Great Lakes is complicated by several factors. Historic records indicate that the area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking people with occasional Iroquoian incursions, but there is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the multitude of names given to tribes, clans, bands and geographic regions. Archaeological sites are scarce and frequently multi-component with thin and intermixed deposits. Excavation often yields only small samples. On the positive side, the multi-component nature of the sites and the fact that the most recent deposits date to the historic period, makes the direct historical approach a suitable analytical tool. Taking the precaution of applying “… the broader ethnic designation of Ojibwa to the historic archaeological components involved,” the author assesses three historic and three prehistoric Ojibwa components concluding that: (1) ceramic artifacts reflect the influence of several different foreign traditions with a time lag from their source of origin and, there fore, cannot be used to elucidate spatial and temporal relationships but, (2) in contrast, stone tool design was a local phenomena and, consequently, can be used to examine such relationships.
1964 (with René Levesque and F. Fitz Osborne) Le gisement de Batiscan. Études Anthropologiques. Numéro 6. Musée National du Canada, Ottawa. The author’s contribution to this publication concerns the analysis and interpretation of archaeological evidence from the Early Woodland Batiscan site located near Trois-Rivières, Quebec.
1963a (with J. E. Anderson) The Donaldson Site. Bulletin No. 184. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. Significant erosion of this site by the Saugeen River instigated the excavation of extant archaeological evidence including a small cemetery, two house structures and three middens through a joint National Museum of Canada and University of Toronto venture. Each of these is described as is the ceramic, lithic and worked animal bone analysis. Originally classified by T. E. Lee as Point Peninsula Focus of the Vine Valley Aspect, this designation was revised to Middle Woodland period, Saugeen Focus. Comparison with the Inverhuron site and the earliest component of the Burley site resulted in the author describing the Donaldson site as the “major defining component of the Saugeen Focus.”
1963b An Archaeological Survey Along the North Shore of Lake Superior. Anthropology Papers, No. 3:1–9. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. Reporting on his archaeological survey and excavation activities during the summer of 1960 from “Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and the Manitoba border, extending along the north shore of Lake Superior and the International Boundary,” the author briefly summarizes evidence of Palaeo-Indian, Archaic, Woodland and Puckasaw Pits he encountered.
1962 A Distributional Study of Some Archaic Traits in Southern Ontario. In Contributions to Anthropology 1960. Part 1, pp. 124–42. National Museum of Canada, Ottawa. Using Archaic artifacts acquired by the Royal Ontario Museum over the course of the preceding 50 years, the author considers seven diagnostic traits from “a distributional and classificatory point of view” in order to acquire a better understanding of the Archaic in south ern Ontario and the Northeast in general.
1960 The Middleport Horizon. Anthropologica II(1):113–20. Noting Richard S. MacNeish’s initial suggestion of a “Middleport Horizon,” the author describes his further examination of this concept utilizing six Ontario sites where three of MacNeish’s ceramic types (Middleport Oblique, Lawson Incised and Ontario Horizontal) were found to predominate, while correspondences between the sites were also noted with respect to pipes, projectile types, bone artifacts and settlement patterns. He also observed modified deer phalanges of the cup-and-pin variety at each of the sites. Some of the ideas expressed in this paper were later modified somewhat in The Ontario Iroquois Tradition (1966), of which the Middleport Horizon constitutes a part.
1956 Comments on the Bruce. New Pages of Prehistory: Archaeological Researches in Ontario. Ontario Historical Society, Toronto. This short piece describes the survey of the Bruce Peninsula by the author and Fritz Knechtel in 1956. This reconnaissance included the campsites of pre-ceramic peoples described in the text as Laurentian but annotated in his personal copy as “Inverhuron,” a mound feature behind one of these sites containing a chopper and human bones covered in red ochre, Point Peninsula archaeological and burial sites including that of a child with 125 small marine shell beads and Iroquois sites.
1955 (with Robert C. Dailey) The Malcolm Site: A Late Stage of the Middle Point Peninsula Culture in Eastern Ontario. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute XXXI(1):3–23. Written with another University of Toronto student under the aegis of T. F. McIlwraith, this report describes the salvage excavation of the Malcolm site situated on the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario. Evidence of three separate occupations was noted: historic, Iroquois, and—the most prominent of the three—Point Peninsula. Data resulting from the excavation was treated under the following headings: Non-Ceramic Remains (Bone, Copper, and Stone), Ceramic Remains (170 rimsherds, 108 of which were analyzable) and Features. Considerable quantities of lithic artifacts, particularly scrapers, were found.
The foregoing does not constitute all of Jim Wright’s publications. Numerous regional society newsletter items, encyclopaedia contributions and fieldwork updates have been excluded.
© Joyce M. Wright