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2006   The   Archaic   Conference   at   Orono:   A   Critique   and   Overview.    In   The   Archaic   of   the   Far   Northeast,   edited   by David   Sanger   and   M.   A.   P.   Renouf,   pp.   437–72.   The   University   of   Maine   Press,   Orono.   Published   posthumously,   this contribution   constitutes   a   constructive   critique   of   13   papers   presented   at   the   Archaic   Conference   held   in   Orono, Maine,   in   October   2001.   The   papers   range   in   time   from   6,000   BCE   to   1,000   BCE   and   in   space   from   Maine   to Quebec   and   Newfoundland-Labrador.   The   author   concludes   by   noting   the   positive   development   whereby   many   of the   contributions   deal   with   subject   matter   that   extends   beyond   narrowly   defined   regions   and   the   corresponding extension    of    “comparative    perspectives    and    problem    orientations.”    He    warns,    however,    that    this    in    turn    will ultimately   require   the   revision   of   current   classification   schemes   and   nomenclature.   With   respect   to   the   latter,   he suggests that the very term “Archaic” is derogatory. 2004a   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada .   Volume   III,   Part   1   (A.D.   500   to   European   Contact) .   Mercury Series   Archaeology   Paper   152.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   Given   the   amount   of   data   available pertaining   to   this   time   period,   the   author   found   it   necessary   to   split   this   volume   into   two   parts.   Part   1   deals   with Maritime    Algonquian,    St.    Lawrence    Iroquois,    Ontario    Iroquois,    Glen    Meyer/Western    Basin,    and    Northern Algonquian   cultures.   As   with   all   of   the   volumes   in   this   series,   the   contents   are   arranged   in   the   following   manner: Précis,    Cultural    Origins    and    Descendants,    Technology,    Subsistence,    Settlement    Patterns,    Cosmology,    External Relationships, Human Biology, Inferences on Society, and Limitations in the Evidence. 2004b   The   Gordon   Island   North   Site   and   Cultural   Settlement   Distributions   Along   the   Upper   St.   Lawrence River   Valley .   In   A   Passion   for   the   Past:   Papers   in   Honour   of   James   F.   Pendergast,   edited   by   James   V.   Wright   and Jean-Luc   Pilon,   pp.   321–93.   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   164.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau. This   paper   represents   an   examination   of   the   pre-European   human   past   along   a   significant   portion   of   the   St. Lawrence   River   which,   acting   as   a   link   between   the   Atlantic   coast   and   the   mainland   interior,   functioned   as   a   major communication   route   for   many   different   cultures   for   many   thousands   of   years.   Starting   with   a   description   of   the Gordon   Island   North   site   (BbGa-2),   the   author   then   examines   settlement   patterns   along   the   Upper   St.   Lawrence River   and,   finally,   discusses   “…   a   selective   consideration”   of   some   of   the   non-ceramic   artifacts   excavated   from   Lake St.    Francis    island    sites.    Overall,    a    tremendous    amount    of    mobility    and    cultural    interaction    is    apparent. Methodological   considerations   include   the   (mis-)use   of   artifacts   deemed   to   be   culturally   diagnostic   (as   opposed   to entire   assemblages),   ¼   inch   screening,   and   making   cultural   taxonomic   assertions   on   the   basis   of   a   single   class   of material culture (e.g., ceramics). 2004c   James   F.   Pendergast:   Blurring   the   Amateur–Professional   Dichotomy .   In   A   Passion   for   the   Past:   Papers   in Honour   of   James   F.   Pendergast,   edited   by   James   V.   Wright   and   Jean-Luc   Pilon,   pp.   1–4.   Mercury   Series   Archaeology Paper   164.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   Intended   as   a   brief   introduction   to   the   man   honoured   in this publication, this paper emphasizes the important contribution to Canadian archaeology of both amateurs and professionals.   Retiring   from   the   Canadian   Army   as   a   Lieutenant-Colonel,   James   F.   Pendergast   became   the   Assistant Director   of   the   National   Museum   of   Man   where   he   initiated   the   ongoing   Mercury   publication   series   and   took   up the   task   of   trying   to   understand   the   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoians,   a   topic   largely   abandoned   since   the   time   of   William   J. Wintemberg.   Jim   Pendergast   authored   seven   monographs   and   more   than   50   articles   and,   among   other   awards, received an honourary doctorate from McGill University. 2003   Preface .   (Eng./Fr.)   In   Île   aux   Allumettes:   L’Archaïque   supérieur   dans   l’Outaouais,   edited   by   Norman   Clermont, Claude   Chapdelaine   and   Jacques   Cinq-Mars,   pp.   11–28,   Paléo-Québec   30.   Recherches   amérindiennes   au   Québec, Montréal   and   the   Musée   canadien   des   civilisations,   Gatineau.   Concluding   that   this   volume,   together   with   one previously   published   on   the   nearby   Morrison   Island   site,   should   be   considered   mandatory   reading   for   anyone interested   in   the   Northeast   North   American   Archaic,   in   part   because   together   they   offer   detailed   examinations   of   a body   of   data   remarkably   unplagued   by   the   problem   of   cultural   admixture,   the   author   congratulates   the   respective authors of the different chapters for their insightful contributions and discusses select issues raised therein. 2002   Elmer   Harp’s   Contribution   to   Bush   Archaeology .   In   Honoring   Our   Elders:   A   History   of   Eastern   Arctic Archaeology,    edited    by    William    W.    Fitzhugh,    Stephen    Loring    and    Daniel    Odess,    pp.    47–52,    Contributions    to Circumpolar   Anthropology   2.   National   Museum   of   Natural   History,   Smithsonian   Institution,   Washington,   D.C.   The author   focuses   upon   Harp’s   influence   on   his   own   work   in   bush   archaeology   (“bush”   being   defined   as   “the   Boreal Forest   and   Lichen   Woodland   vegetation   provinces”).   This   included   excavation   of   the   Aberdeen   and   Grant   Lake   sites and,   more   generally,   the   inspiration   afforded   by   Harp’s   interest   in   regions   showing   evidence   of   habitation   by different    archaeological    cultures    (permitting    the    examination    of    such    issues    as    cultural    replacement    and interaction),    his    description    of    artifacts    in    a    manner    conducive    to    use    by    other    scholars,    his    insightful interpretations,   the   relevance   of   his   interests   to   broad   anthropological   considerations,   his   excellent   sketches   of archaeological sites and topography, and the fact that he was the first to undertake archaeological reconnaissance in a number of different regions. 1999a   Archaeological   Cultural   Constructs   and   Systematics:   A   Proposed   Classification   System   for   Canada .   In Taming   the   Taxonomy:   Toward   a   New   Understanding   of   Great   Lakes   Archaeology,   edited   by   Ronald   F.   Williamson and   Christopher   M.   Watts,   pp.   289–300.   eastendbooks,   Toronto.   Prepared   in   response   to   a   session   held   during   the 1997   joint   meeting   of   the   Ontario   Archaeological   Society   and   the   Midwest   Archaeological   Conference,   the   author laments   the   all   too   often   parochial   foci   of   Canadian   archaeologists   when   it   comes   to   the   development   of   broad spatial   and   temporal   cultural   taxonomies.   As   there   is   no   more   important   tool   to   research   of   any   type   than classification,   the   author   attempts   to   redress   this   shortcoming   by   offering   his   own   conception   of   a   national   cultural taxonomy.   This   is   the   same   taxonomy   utilized   in   his   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada   series   and   is presented   in   the   hope   that   it   will   foster   further   discussion   and   in   the   full   expectation   that   it   will   be   refined   over time.   Indeed,   it   was   designed   to   be   spatially   and   temporally   flexible   for   just   this   purpose.   Utilizing   environmentally premised    nomenclature,    it    is    also    hierarchical,    proceeds    from    the    general    to    the    specific,    and    will    facilitate communication between professionals and amateurs alike. 1999b   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada.   Volume   II   (1,000   B.C.–A.D.   500) .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology Paper   152.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   The   second   volume   of   this   series   deals   with   the   period 1000   BCE   to   500   CE   and   includes   chapters   on   Late   Maritime   culture,   Late   Great   Lakes–St.   Lawrence   culture,   Late Eastern   Shield   culture,   Late   Western   Shield   culture,   Late   Plains   culture,   Late   Plateau   culture,   Late   West   Coast culture,   Late   Northwest   Interior   culture   and   Middle   Palaeo-Eskimo   culture.   Like   the   first   volume,   each   chapter contains   the   following   subsections:   Précis,   Cultural   Origins   and   Descendants,   Technology,   Subsistence,   Settlement Patterns,    Cosmology,    External    Relationships,    Human    Biology,    Inferences    on    Society,    and    Limitations    in    the Evidence. 1999c   In   the   Eye   of   the   Beholder,   or   What   is   a   Meadowood   Point?    Kewa   5&6:20–27.   Written   in   response   to   an article   by   Chris   Ellis,   “Some   Sites   and   Artifacts   I   Have   Known:   the   Welke-Tonkonoh   Site   Revisited,   or   What   is   a Meadowood   Point?,”   that   appeared   in   the   Ontario   Archaeological   Society,   London   Chapter   newsletter   Kewa,   Wright addresses   criticisms   therein   that   stemmed   from   a   section   of   his   own   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada, Volume   II.   He   clarifies   his   interpretation   of   this   point   type   as   “the   first   convincing   evidence   for   the   diffusion   of   the bow   and   arrow   weapon   system   into   eastern   North   America,”   buttresses   his   warning   against   its   use   as   a   cultural marker    by    pointing    out    that    it    appears    in    other    than    Meadowood    assemblages,    and    emphasizes    that measurements of the haft portion and neck are of greater utility than the maximum thickness. 1998   Foreword .   In   Iroquoian   Peoples   of   the   Land   of   Rocks   and   Water,   A.D.   1000-1650:   A   Study   in   Settlement Archaeology,   4   volumes,   by   William   D.   Finlayson,   pp.   xi–xvi.   London   Museum   of   Archaeology,   London.   In   this introduction   to   William   D.   Finlayson’s   mammoth   community   settlement   study   of   the   Crawford   Lake   region,   the author   expresses   admiration   for   both   the   scope   and   originality   of   the   work   described   therein.   Of   particular   note was   the   refinement   of   his   own   Middle   Ontario   Iroquois   dates   (1300   CE   to   1400   CE)   to   1330   CE   to   1504   CE   made possible   by   the   innovative   use   of   varves   correlated   with   archaeological   data   and   the   discussion   of   further   evidence supporting   his   Conquest   Theory.   The   primary   significance   of   these   volumes,   however,   is   in   the   provision   of   data suitable    for    use    by    other    researchers    with    different    research    foci.    The    author    does,    however,    suggest    that Finlayson    might    in    the    future    amplify    his    Crawford    Lake    study    by    incorporating    data    from    individual    house structures which could potentially provide a wealth of information relevant to clans and other social groups. 1996   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada:   Genesis   of   a   Synthesis .   Ontario   Archaeology   62:4–9.   This   short paper   constitutes   a   description   of   how   the   author   came   to   write   the   first   synthesis   of   Canadian   archaeology,   the multi-volume   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada.   Fully   aware   of   the   idiosyncratic   nature   of   such   a   task   and the   risks   inherent   in   gathering   together   a   morass   of   theretofore   strictly   regional   data   and   organizing   it   into   a coherent   whole,   he   nevertheless   set   upon   this   course   of   action   because   he   saw   the   need   for   a   general   reference work of such scope that would be accessible to both scholarly and lay audiences. 1995a   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada,   Volume   I   (10,000–1,000   B.C.) .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology Paper   152.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   The   first   volume   in   this   series   concerns   the   period   10,000 to   1000   BCE   and   includes   chapters   on   Palaeo-Indian   culture,   Northwestern   Palaeo-Arctic   culture,   Early   and   Middle Archaic   complexes,   Early   Maritime   culture,   Early   Great   Lakes–St.   Lawrence   culture,   Plano   culture,   Early   Shield culture,   Early   Plains   culture,   Early   Plateau   culture,   Southwestern   Coastal   culture,   Northwestern   Coastal   culture, Early   Northwest   Interior   culture,   Middle   Maritime   culture,   Middle   Great   Lakes-St.   Lawrence   culture,   Middle   Shield culture,   Middle   Plains   culture,   Middle   Plateau   culture,   Early   West   Coast   culture,   Middle   Northwest   Interior   culture and   Early   Palaeo-Eskimo   culture.   Each   of   these   chapters   contains   the   following   subsections:   Précis,   Cultural   Origins and    Descendants,    Technology,    Subsistence,    Settlement    Patterns,    Cosmology,    External    Relationships,    Human Biology, Inferences on Society, and Limitations in the Evidence. 1995b   Three   Dimensional   Reconstructions   of   Iroquoian   Longhouses:   A   Comment .   Archaeology   of   Eastern North   America   23:9–21.   Written   in   response   to   a   paper   by   Mima   Kapches   previously   published   in   the   same   journal, the    author    applauds    her    for    tackling    the    issue    of    longhouse    spatial    patterning,    while    disagre    eing    with    her conclusions   as   based   on   an   inadequate   understanding   of   all   of   the   factors   affecting   longhouse   construction   and   a misinterpretation   of   the   longhouse   reconstruction   efforts   undertaken   in   conjunction   with   the   excavation   of   the Nodwell   site.   As   with   most   archaeolo   gical   research,   it   is   important   to   utilize   data   from   a   variety   of   sources including   historical   documentation,   linguistics,   as   well   as   the   archaeological   record.   However,   in   addition   to   these, Wright   argues   that   the   topic   of   longhouse   construction   necessitates   an   understanding   of   the   intrinsic   properties   of the   building   materials   involved.   Decay   resistance,   strength,   elasticity   versus   rigidity,   and   ratio   of   length   to   butt diameter    were    all    crucial    considerations    in    the    selection    of    the    poles    just    as    weight,    strength,    pliability    and combustibility   would   have   affected   the   choice   of   bark   with   which   to   sheath   them.   Kapches   advocated   the   view   that longhouse   roofs   were   formed   by   bending   the   wall   posts   over   the   interior   frames   and   lashing   them   at   the   peak. Wright    deemed    this    improbable    as    the    post    mould    diameters    would    have    had    to    be    much    larger    than    the archaeological   record   indicates   they   were,   the   tension   on   the   walls   which   Kapches   felt   would   strengthen   the   roof structure   would   have   resulted   in   oval-shaped   post   moulds,   and   the   poles   probably   would   have   broken   under   the force   to   which   they   were   subjected.   Instead,   the   author   interprets   the   available   evidence   as   indicating   that   the   true strength   of   longhouses   would   have   been   the   frame,   and   the   function   of   exterior   walls   would   have   been   primarily for the attachment of bark sheathing. 1994a   Comment   on   Spence’s   ”Mortuary   Programmes   of   the   Early   Ontario   Iroquoians” .   Ontario   Archaeology 58:23–24.   Pleased   to   note   that,   in   contrast   to   many   who   have   voiced   doubts   concerning   the   Early   Ontario   Iroquois stage   of   the   Ontario   Iroquois   Tradition,   Mike   Spence   attempted   to   support   his   conclusions   with   specific   data, Wright   nevertheless   rejects   Spence’s   conclusions   on   the   grounds   that:   (1)   a   single   aspect   of   a   society,   in   this   case mortuary   practice,   cannot   be   used   to   accept   or   reject   a   cultural   construct   such   as   the   Ontario   Iroquois   Tradition, (2)   the   mortuary   database   is   flawed   because   context   is   uncertain   in   several   of   the   cited   examples,   (3)   evidence attributed   to   Pickering   was   actually   Glen   Meyer,   and,   (4)   there   were   some   settlement   pattern   classificatory   issues. Despite    these    concerns,    however,    Wright    applauded    Spence    for    his    presentation    of    new    evidence    and    for introducing innovative ways of assessing it. 1994b   The   Prehistoric   Transportation   of   Goods   in   the   St.   Lawrence   River   Basin .   In   Prehistoric   Exchange Systems   in   North   America,   edited   by   Timothy   G.   Baugh   and   Jonathon   E.   Ericson,   pp.   47–71.   Plenum   Press,   New York.   The   St.   Lawrence   River   and   its   associated   tributaries   have   long   functioned   in   a   manner   akin   to   a   super highway   thereby   permitting   the   diffusion   of   ideas   and   the   spread   of   people   and   material   items   over   a   large   part   of North   America.   Focusing   on   archaeological   evidence   of   past   exchange   networks   in   this   region,   which   the   author indicates    probably    involved    both    long-distance    trading    parties    and    successive    hand-to-hand    exchanges,    the material   considered   ranges   from   Plano   to   Woodland   and   includes   a   discussion   of   specific   items,   including:   silica, native copper, fireclay, galena, and marine faunal remains (exclusive of shell). 1994c   Before   European   Contact .   In   Aboriginal   Ontario:   Historical   Perspectives   on   the   First   Nations,   edited   by Edward   S.   Rogers   and   Donald   B.   Smith,   pp.   21–38.   Ontario   Historical   Studies   Series.   Dundurn   Press,   Toronto.   This paper   constitutes   a   concise   introduction   to   the   cultural   taxonomy   of   the   Native   occupants   of   Ontario   for   the   past 11,000   years.   This   includes:   (1)   the   Palaeo-Indian   Period   (9000   BCE–5000   BCE)   which   began   with   the   wide-ranging Clovis   people,   some   of   whom   evolved   into   the   Plano   culture;   (2)   the   Archaic   Period   (5000   BCE–1000   BCE)   which includes   the   Shield   Archaic   culture   that   developed   out   of   the   previous   Plano   culture   in   Northern   Ontario   and probably   culminated   in   the   ancestors   of   the   historic   Ojibwa,   Cree,   Algonquin   and   Montagnais,   and   the   Laurentian Archaic   which   developed   in   the   hardwood   forests   of   Southern   Ontario;   and,   (3)   the   Woodland   Period   (1000 BCE–European   Contact)   which   is   characterised   by   the   introduction   of   pottery.   The   Initial   Woodland   (1000   BCE–1000 CE)   includes   the   Meadowood,   Point   Peninsula,   Saugeen   and   Laurel   cultures.   Meadowood   “eventually   changed   or was   absorbed”   into   Point   Peninsula   which   itself   changed   with   the   adoption   of   certain   cultural   features   from   the Ohio   Hopewell   culture.   Saugeen   culture   was   also   located   in   southern   Ontario   and   shared   many   cultural   features. What   happened   to   it   is   unknown   but   it   may   have   evolved   into   Princess   Point   culture   about   which   relatively   little   is known   except   that   it   was   the   first   to   adopt   corn.   Laurel   culture   was   widespread   in   Northern   Ontario   and   other Canadian   provinces.   The   Terminal   Woodland   Period   (1000   CE–European   Contact)   includes   the   Ontario   and   St. Lawrence   Iroquois   in   southern   Ontario   and   pre-European   Native   groups   from   which   the   historic   Algonquian- speaking Cree, Algonquin and Ojibwa evolved. 1993   (with   D.   M.   Wright)   Iroquoian   Archaeology:   It’s   the   Pits .   In   Essays   in   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoian   Archaeology: Selected    Papers    in    Honour    of    J.    V.    Wright,    edited    by    James    F.    Pendergast    and    Claude    Chapdelaine,    pp.    1-7. Occasional   Papers   in   Northeastern   Archaeology   No.   8.   Copetown   Press,   Dundas,   Ontario.   This   paper   discusses some   of   the   pit   contents   from   the   four-acre   early   sixteenth-century   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoian   Maynard–McKeown village   site   with   an   emphasis   upon   items   retrieved   via   the   processing   of   almost   27   tonnes   of   pit   matrix   from   more than   1,000   features.   Of   particular   note   was   the   identification   of   a   heretofore   unrecognized   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoian utilized   flake   industry,   the   presence   of   miniscule   fragments   of   mollusc   shell   indicative   of   off-site   processing,   fish bone   toothbrushes,   diseased   adult   human   teeth   possibly   hidden   in   house-pits   for   fear   of   their   use   in   witchcraft, the   probable   remnants   of   a   medicine   bundle,   nested   pottery   vessels   and   a   deer   bone   feature.   The   authors   stress the   importance   of   processing   pit   fill   without   relying   on   ¼   inch   screen   sieving:   a   point   well   illustrated   by   their recovery   of   the   only   extant   evidence   of   contact   between   the   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoians   and   Europeans—a   small   iron awl. 1992a   Une   critique   sur   les   aspects   démographiques   et   la   migration   tardive   des   Iroquoiens .   Recherches amérindiennes   au   Québec   XXII(4):29–32.   In   a   special   issue   of   the   journal   devoted   to   the   debate   surrounding   the   in situ   development   of   the   Iroquoian   populations   of   the   Northeast,   the   author   responds   to   an   article   by   Dean   R. Snow   titled   “L’augmentation   de   la   population   chez   les   groupes   iroquoiens   et   ses   conséquences   sur   l’étude   de   leurs origines.” 1992b   The   Conquest   Theory   of   the   Ontario   Iroquois   Tradition:   A   Reassessment .   Ontario   Archaeology   54:3–15. Approximately   a   quarter   of   a   century   after   he   first   posited   the   cultural   taxonomy   known   as   the   Ontario   Iroquois Tradition,    the    author    revisits    the    construct    insofar    as    it    concerns    the    theorized    conquest    of    Glen    Meyer    by Pickering   to   assess   its   continued   utility   in   light   of   new   evidence   and   to   address   some   of   the   criticisms   that   have been   levelled   against   it.   Assessing   a   variety   of   data,   including   but   not   limited   to   settlement   patterns   and   ceramics, the author concludes that the available archaeological evidence continues to support the theory. 1990a    (with    D.    M.    Wright)    A    News    Item    from    the    McKeown    Site .    Arch    Notes    90(5):4,    32.    This    short    piece documents   the   discovery   of   the   first   solid   archaeological   evidence   of   contact   between   the   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoians and     Europeans—a     small     iron     awl     excavated     from     a     defensive     trench     at     the     early     sixteenth-century Maynard–McKeown   site.   Notably,   this   evidence   would   have   been   lost   if   the   decision   had   not   been   made   to   flotate 27 tonnes of material from the site. 1990b   Archaeology   of   Southern   Ontario   to   A.D.   1650:   A   Critique .   In   Archaeology   of   Southern   Ontario   to   A.D. 1650,   edited   by   Chris   J.   Ellis   and   Neal   Ferris,   pp.   493–503.   Occasional   Publication   No.   5,   London   Chapter,   Ontario Archaeological   Society,   London.   Speaking   of   the   role   of   syntheses   as   “an   essential   advancement   of   knowledge,” Wright   congratulates   the   authors   of   this   contributed   volume   for   their   respective   roles   in   creating   a   synthesis   of Ontario   archaeological   understanding   to   date.   Offering   constructive   criticism   on   each   chapter,   additional   detail   is frequently   supplied   and,   occasionally,   a   differing   interpretation.   He   concludes   by   expressing   great   hope   for   the future    of    archaeological    research    in    Ontario,    noting    that    “as    archaeological    knowledge    expands,    so    do    the opportunities to actually begin to understand how past societies evolved.” 1988   Québec   Prehistory .   Canada’s   Visual   History   Series,   Volume   79.   National   Museum   of   Man   and   the   National Film   Board   of   Canada,   Ottawa.   Intended   as   an   aid   to   teachers,   this   bilingual   package   contains   a   textual   description of   Quebec’s   past   as   known   through   archaeology,   30   slides   of   artifacts   and   maps,   references   for   suggested   reading and suggested classroom activities. 1987a   Archaeological   Evidence   for   the   Use   of   Furbearers   in   North   America .   In   Wild   Furbearer   Management and   Conservation   in   North   America,   edited   by   Milan   Novak,   James   A.   Baker,   Martyn   E.   Obbard   and   Bruce   Malloch, pp.   3-12.   Ontario   Ministry   of   Natural   Resources,   Toronto.   Intended   for   a   non-archaeological   audience,   the   author describes    the    use    of    furbearers    by    Canada’s    past    Native    peoples.    He    notes    that    most    of    these    populations subsisted   almost   entirely   by   hunting.   Furthermore,   the   hides   and   bones   of   animals   were   used   for   a   variety   of important     purposes;     including,     clothing,     shelters,     tools     and     watercraft.     Despite     such     limitations     in     the archaeological   evidence   as   off-site   processing   and   artifact   decay,   it   is   apparent   that   furbearers   fulfilled   a   symbolic role   that   archaeologists   can   study.   Specific   archaeological   evidence   relevant   to   furbearers   is   provided   for:   Beaver, Muskrat, Coyote, Wolf, Arctic Fox, Red Fox/Grey Fox, Marten/Fisher/Short-tailed Weasel/Mink/Otter and Lynx. 1987b     Contributions     of     the     Physical     and     Natural     Sciences     to     Archaeological     Interpretation,     An Introduction .    Diversa    III(2):46-48.    Describing    the    symposium    “Science    in    Archaeology:    Contributions    of    the Physical   and   Natural   Sciences   to   Archaeological   Interpretation,”   which   took   place   during   the   annual   meeting   of   the Royal   Society   of   Canada   in   Hamilton   in   1987,   the   author   congratulates   the   contributors   and   urges   the   reader   to follow     their     example     by     embracing     a     broader     perspective     in     archaeological     practice     thereby     allowing developments in other disciplines to favourably impact archaeology and vice versa. 1987c   Historical   Atlas   of   Canada:   From   the   Beginning   to   1800,   Volume   I .   University   of   Toronto   Press,   Toronto. The   nine   plates   authored   or   co-authored   by   Wright   represent   a   unique   cartographic   representation   of   Canada’s Native   past   and   include   the   following:   (1)   The   Plano   People,   8500–6000   BCE   (with   Arthur   Roberts,   V.K.   Prest   and   J.- S.Vincent);    (2)    Cultural    Sequences,    8000–4000    BCE    (with    V.    K.    Prest    and    J.-S.Vincent);    (3)    Cultural    Sequences, 4000–1000   BCE;   (4)   Cultural   Sequences,   1000   BCE–500   CE;   (5)   Cultural   Sequences,   500   CE–European   Contact;   (6) Iroquoian   Agricultural   Settlement   (with   R.   Fecteau);   (7)   Prehistoric   Trade   (with   Roy   L.   Carlson);   (8)   Cosmology;   and, (9)   Population   and   Subsistence   (with   Conrad   E.   Heidenreich).   The   author   also   wrote   a   textual   introduction   to   the plates (pages 1–6) and held overall responsibility for the archaeological content of the volume. 1987d   The   Roebuck   Site:   A   St.   Lawrence   Iroquois   Prehistoric   Site .   In   XIIth   INQUA   Congress:   Quaternary   of   the Ottawa   Region   and   Guides   for   Day   Excursions,   edited   by   R.   J.   Fulton,   pp.   55–58.   A   brief   introduction   to   the   history of   the   1450   CE   to   1550   CE   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoian   Roebuck   site   for   quaternary   researchers   participating   in   an international   congress,   this   paper   describes   the   location   of   the   village,   historical   information   relating   to   the   St. Lawrence   Iroquoians,   and   some   of   what   its   excavation   has   brought   to   light   including:   the   importance   of   squash   to the   diet   of   the   people   who   lived   there,   their   involvement   in   warfare,   evidence   of   long-distance   trade,   and   insights into   their   burial   practices.   The   anaerobic   environment   of   a   portion   of   the   site   allowed   for   the   preservation   of wooden artifacts and delicate plant food remains. 1986a   Mapping   Canada’s   Prehistory .   Transactions   of   the   Royal   Society   of   Canada   I:203–06   (Reprinted   in   Arch Notes   88(1):16–19).   This   short   paper   describes   the   processes   involved   in   creating   the   cartographic   plates   for Volume   1   of   the   Historical   Atlas   of   Canada.   Two   of   the   significant   difficulties   dealt   with   included   the   need   to establish    “cultural    constructs    across    Canada    that    were    approximately    equivalent    in    terms    of    archaeological taxonomy” and appropriate time periods. 1986b   Ontario   Research   Update .   Ottawa   Archaeologist   13(3):3–8.   This   report   describes   the   development   of archaeology   over   the   preceding   decade   and   includes:   an   assessment   of   topical   focus,   popularization   efforts, excavations     undertaken     in     the     province,     improvements     to     archaeological     understanding,     experimental archaeology,   notable   publications,   legal   issues,   institution   creation,   the   contributions   of   physical   anthropologists, avocational   efforts,   innovative   methods   such   as   mass   spectrometer   dating   and   lithic   fingerprinting,   and   CRM.   In conclusion,   the   author   exhorts   his   readers   to   work   toward   further   rationalization   of   archaeological   practices   within the contexts of CRM, universities, and museums; balance research efforts; and respond to the “public thirst” for archaeological understanding. 1985a   The   Development   of   Prehistory   in   Canada:   1935–1985 .   American   Antiquity   50(2):421–33.   As   part   of   a special   fiftieth   anniversary   issue   of   American   Antiquity   focused   on   the   development   of   archaeological   practice   in the   Americas,   the   author’s   contribution   stands   out   as   the   lone   Canadian   perspective.   The   text   is   divided   into sections   as   follows:   Antiquarianism,   Natural   Science   and   Darwinian   Biology,   Boasian   Anthropology,   the   Ascendancy of   Anti-Historical   Anthropology   and   the   Alienation   of   Archaeology,   Binfordian   Positivism,   Archaeological   Cultural Resource   Management,   Main   Drift   of   Archaeology   and   Its   Resources,   and   Prospects.   He   offers   great   hope   for   the future of Canadian archaeology but expresses a few prescient cautions as well. 1985b   The   Comparative   Radiometric   Dating   of   Two   Prehistoric   Ontario   Iroquoian   Villages .   Canadian   Journal of   Archaeology   9(1):57–68.   Utilizing   samples   from   the   charred   and   uncharred   bones   of   different   animal   species (bear,    deer,    beaver,    fish    and    human),    wood    charcoal,    carbonized    corn    and    clam    shell,    this    paper    compares radiocarbon   dates   from   the   fourteenth   century   Middleport   Nodwell   site   and   the   mid-fifteenth   to   mid-sixteenth century   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoian   McIvor   site.   Ultimately   a   cautionary   tale,   the   author   describes   some   of   the   hazards posed   by   these   different   materials;   for   example,   that   plants   which   utilize   the   C4   photosynthetic   pathway   (like   corn) produce   late   dates   because   they   discriminate   for   the   heavier   carbon   isotopes   (as   does   bone   collagen),   that   diet affects   dates   derived   from   bone,   that   the   presence   of   old   carbonates   in   fish   and   clam   shell   likewise   result   in   late dates,   that   even   contemporaneous   wood   can   exhibit   a   ±100   year   variation,   and,   finally,   the   possibility   that   an exchange   between   samples   and   their   matrix   (e.g.,   inorganic   carbonates   in   a   region   dominated   by   limestone)   might occur in any given situation. 1984a    The    Cultural    Continuity    of    the    Northern    Iroquoian-Speaking    Peoples .    In    Extending    the    Rafters: Interdisciplinary   Approaches   to   Iroquoian   Studies,   edited   by   Michael   K.   Foster,   Jack   Campesi   and   Marianne   Mithun, pp.   283–99.   State   University   of   New   York   Press,   Albany.   Eschewing   migration   as   an   explanation   for   the   presence   of Northeastern   North   American   Iroquoian   populations   in   a   region   surrounded   by   Algonquian-speaking   peoples,   the author   hypothesizes   their   in   situ   development   as   far   back   as   the   Laurentian   Archaic.   Within   the   context   of   this larger issue, the difficulty of identifying ethnicity in the archaeological record is also discussed. 1984b   Publish   or   Perish:   Archaeology   and   the   Public .   The   Ottawa   Archaeologist   11(3):9–14.   The   purpose   of   this paper   is   to   exhort   the   archaeological   community   to   communicate   the   results   of   their   research   in   ways   amenable   to the   general   public.   In   part,   this   is   a   matter   of   responsibility.   It   is   also   self-serving:   the   general   public   cannot   be expected   to   fund   and   otherwise   support   the   protection,   development   and   communication   of   something   they   know nothing   about.   And,   with   so   many   archaeological   sites   threatened   by   economic   and   natural   forces,   there   is   a desperate   need   for   such   support.   The   process   of   creating   popular   syntheses   of   archaeological   findings   will   have the   added   benefit   of   instigating   reflection   with   respect   to   theoretical   assumptions.   Moreover,   such   works   hold   the potential   to   promote   collaboration   with   scholars   in   other   disciplines   who   would   likely   be   unwilling   to   wade   through technical reports. 1982a   La   circulation   de   biens   archéologiques   dans   le   bassin   du   Saint-Laurent   au   cours   de   la   préhistoire . Recherches   amérindiennes   au   Québec   XII(3):193–205.   The   St.   Lawrence   River   has   facilitated   communication   and exchange of material culture for the past 9,000 years. One means by which these may be studied by archaeologists is   the   petrographic   analysis   of   lithic   items.   The   author   uses   evidence   derived   from   use   of   this   method   and   more   to demonstrate the considerable temporal and spatial extent of exchanges in this region. 1982b   Archaeological   Cultural   Resource   Management   –   Preserving   the   Past   for   What   Purpose?    In   Directions in   Archaeology:   A   Question   of   Goals,   pp.   263–68.   Proceedings   of   the   14th   annual   conference.   The   Archaeological Society    of    the    University    of    Calgary,    Calgary.    The    purpose    of    this    paper    is    to    emphasize    that    archaeological excavation   needs   to   result   in   the   advancement   of   archaeological   understanding   and   not   simply   “preservation, assessment   and   management   of   the   archaeological   resource.”   These   are   not   acceptable   ends   in   themselves   and the   author   warns   that,   ultimately,   this   misplaced   emphasis   will   have   disastrous   consequences   for   archaeology   in Canada. He offers possible solutions to this unfortunate situation. 1981a   Ontario   Prehistory .   Canada’s   Visual   History   Series,   Volume   45.   National   Museum   of   Man   and   the   National Film   Board   of   Canada,   Ottawa.   Intended   as   an   aid   to   teachers,   this   bilingual   package   contains   a   textual   description of   Ontario’s   past   as   known   through   archaeology,   30   slides   of   artifacts   and   maps,   references   for   suggested   reading and suggested classroom activities. 1981b   Prehistory   of   the   Canadian   Shield .   In   Subarctic,   edited   by   June   Helm,   pp.   86–96.   Handbook   of   the   North American    Indians,    Volume    6,    William    C.    Sturtevant,    general    editor.    Smithsonian    Institution,    Washington,    D.C. Archaeological   evidence   from   non-coastal   areas   of   the   “Precambrian   Shield   regions   of   Labrador,   northern   Québec, Ontario,   Manitoba,   and   Saskatchewan,   extreme   northeastern   Alberta,   and   the   southern   half   of   Keewatin   District and   the   eastern   edge   of   Mackenzie   District   of   the   Northwest   Territories”   is   notably   homogeneous   through   time and across space, a characteristic that the author argues is a consequence of the region’s physiography. 1981c   The   Glen   Site:   An   Historic   Cheveux   Relevés   Campsite   on   Flowerpot   Island,   Georgian   Bay,   Ontario . Ontario   Archaeology   35:45–59.   In   this   paper,   the   author   describes   his   excavations   at   the   Glen   Site,   a   very   late prehistoric   to   early   seventeenth   century   Cheveux   Relevés   fall   fishing   campsite.   As   the   Algonquian   inhabitants   of this   and   related   sites   shared   the   same   pottery   tradition   as   adjacent   Iroquoian   populations,   an   association   attesting to   a   relationship   also   recorded   in   historical   documents,   an   effort   is   made   to   differentiate   between   these   groups   on the   basis   of   their   material   culture.   Comparison   of   the   artifacts   from   the   Glen   site   with   those   derived   from   stratum II   of   the   multi-component,   summer–fall   occupied   Michipicoten   site,   the   multi-component   summer–fall   occupied Pic    site,    and    the    roughly    contemporaneous    Iroquoian    Sidey-Mackay    village    site,    permitted    the    following observations:   (1)   pottery   vessels   were   more   prominent   at   the   Iroquoian   site   than   lithic   tools   whereas   the   opposite phenomena    was    true    at    the    three    Algonquian    sites;    (2)    there    was    an    east–west    cline    in    the    involvement    of Algonquians   in   the   Iroquoian   pottery   tradition;   (3)   Algonquian   pots   tended   to   be   smaller,   friable,   with   popular sixteenth-century   Iroquoian   motifs   applied   to   low-collared   seventeenth-century   vessels;   (4)   “Small   stone   tools, unifacially   retouched   and   generally   trianguloid   in   outline,   are   restricted   to   the   Algonquian   components   and   have the   highest   incidence   at   the   western-most   compo   nent”;   (5)   irregular   slate   knives   are   peculiar   to   Algonquian technology;   (6)   end-scrapers   dominate   the   lithic   portion   of   the   Iroquoian   site   collection   but   make   an   infrequent appearance   at   the   Algonquian   sites.   They   are   also   longer   and   sometimes   exhibit   traces   of   retouch   and   bipolar crushing;   (7)   Iroquoian   arrowheads   may   be   longer,   wider,   and   thicker,   and   (8)   wedges,   generally   common   on Algonquian sites, occur infrequently at the Iroquoian settlement. 1980   The   Role   of   Attribute   Analysis   in   the   Study   of   Iroquoian   Prehistory .   In   Proceedings   of   the   1979   Iroquois Pottery   Conference,   pp.   21–26.   Research   Records   No.   13.   Rochester   Museum   and   Science   Center,   Rochester.   The author   argues   that,   while   typological   analyses   of   ceramics   have   contributed   valuable   insights   into   past   behaviour, the   time   has   come   to   use   a   finer   tool   for   such   research:   attribute   analysis.   Seven   propositions   are   offered   that cumulatively support this conclusion. 1979a   The   Shield   Archaic:   A   Critique   of   a   Critique .   Manitoba   Archaeological   Quarterly   3(3–4):30–35.   Responding to   a   review   of   the   author’s   The   Shield   Archaic   (1972),   Wright   addresses   several   misconceptions   and   errors.   He concludes by emphasizing the need of the reviewer in question to support his statements with evidence. 1979b   Québec   Prehistory .   National   Museum   of   Man   and   Van   Nostrand   Reinhold   Press,   Toronto.   Written   for   a popular   audience,   this   volume   describes   the   archaeology   of   Quebec   in   the   following   manner:   The   Palaeo-Indian Period   (Clovis   Culture,   Plano   Culture),   The   Archaic   Period   (Laurentian   Culture,   Shield   Culture,   Maritime   Culture), The   Woodland   Period   (The   Initial   Woodland   Period,   including   Meadowood   Culture,   Point   Peninsula   Culture,   and Laurel   Culture   and   The   Terminal   Woodland   Period   including   The   St.   Lawrence   Iroquois,   The   Algonkin,   The   Cree, The   Montagnais,   The   Micmac-Malecite,   and   The   Abenaki),   Palaeo-Eskimo   and   Thule   Cultures.   The   French   edition   of this book, translated by Roger J. M. Marois, was published in 1980. 1978    The    Implications    of    Probable    Early    and    Middle    Archaic    Projectile    Points    from    Southern    Ontario . Canadian   Journal   of   Archaeology   2:59–78.   The   author   offers   four   proposals   concerning   Early   and   Middle   Archaic peoples   in   south   eastern   Canada   and,   specifically,   Ontario.   This   includes   the   time   of   occupation   by   those   of southern   origin,   the   spatial   area   of   habitation,   an   assessment   of   the   Fitting–Ritchie   hypothesis   regarding   the   game carrying   capacity   of   essentially   coniferous   forests,   and   possible   associations   between   late   Palaeo-Indians   and   Early Archaic migrants. 1977   Trends   and   Consequences   in   Canadian   Prehistory .   Canadian   Journal   of   Archaeology   1:1–14.   The   author emphasizes   the   need   for   archaeology   to   situate   itself   decisively   between   the   natural   and   social   sciences,   separate instruction   from   anthropology   in   universities,   and   broaden   its   use   of   theory   and   methods.   Ultimately,   the   message is   that   the   discipline   desperately   needs   to   establish   an   identity   for   itself.   Appended   comments   are   provided   by: Bruce Drewitt, Patrick Plumet, Bruce G. Trigger, Richard G. Forbis and Roy L. Carlson. 1976a   (with   Polly   Koezur)   The   Potato   Island   Site,   District   of   Kenora,   Ontario .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper 51.   National   Museum   of   Man,   Ottawa.   Excavated   by   Polly   Koezur   and   reported   upon   by   Wright,   this   volume describes   the   stratified   spring-to-summer   occupied,   Northern   Ontario,   Potato   Island   site.   Due   to   considerable disturbance   to   the   deposits,   however,   only   the   Archaic   and   Terminal   Woodland   levels   could   be   isolated.   Selkirk   and Blackduck   ceramics   are   suggested   to   be   contemporaneous   but   a   conclusive   statement   in   this   regard   cannot   be made   because   of   the   disturbed   nature   of   the   contexts   from   which   they   were   excavated.   The   material   culture   from the   Potato   Island   site   is   described   and   compared   with   that   of   the   similarly   stratified   McCluskey   site   located   to   the west   of   Thunder   Bay.   One   observation   resulting   from   this   exercise   is   that   there   seems   to   be   a   pattern   of   poor   bone utilization at these sites despite excellent bone preservation. 1976b   The   Grant   Lake   Site,   Keewatin   District,   N.W.T.    Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   47.   National   Museum   of Man,   Ottawa.   This   report   describes   the   results   of   the   author’s   excavation   of   the   Grant   Lake   site,   a   primarily   Agate Basin   complex   (Palaeo-Indian)   site   with   multiple   living   floors.   The   site   is   strategically   situated   near   a   caribou crossing   in   an   area   that   is   also   rich   in   trout.   Materials   pertaining   to   the   Shield   Archaic,   Arctic   Small   Tool   and Taltheilei traditions were also recovered. 1976c   Six   Chapters   of   Canada’s   Prehistory .   National   Museum   of   Man,   Ottawa.   This   volume   was   written   for   a general   audience   of   those   interested   in   Canada’s   archaeological   heritage   and   includes   chapters   on   The   Prehistoric Hunter,   The   Prehistoric   Fisherman,   The   Prehistoric   Farmer,   The   Prehistoric   Toolmaker,   The   Prehistoric   Trader   and Prehistoric Houses. 1975   The   Prehistory   of   Lake   Athabasca:   An   Initial   Statement .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   29.   National Museum   of   Man,   Ottawa.   This   volume   addresses   two   hypotheses   regarding   the   prehistory   of   the   Lake   Athabasca region:   (1)   that   evidence   of   its   use   through   time   by   Plains,   Arctic,   and   Boreal   Forest   peoples   corresponds   with   its proximity   to   these   respective   physiographic   zones   and   corresponding   climate   fluctuations,   and   (2)   there   is   an east/west   dichotomy   in   the   archaeological   evidence   that   is   respectively   suggested   to   reflect   utilization   of   these areas   by   Athabascan-speaking   caribou   hunters   historically   associated   with   the   Chipewyans   and   a   group   of   bison hunters, probably Athabascan-speakers related to the historic Beavers. 1974a   Archaeological   Taxonomy:   Apples   and   Oranges .   Bulletin   of   the   Canadian   Archaeological   Association 6:206–09.   The   advancement   of   our   understanding   of   the   North   American   past   has   been   hampered   by   poorly constructed   cultural   taxonomies.   To   properly   study   the   relationships   through   time   and   space   of   archaeological cultures,   it   is   necessary   that   the   taxonomies   we   create   utilize   only   those   attributes   that   are   pertinent   to   revealing relationships   within   a   single   tradition   and   between   different   cultural   developments.   Utilizing   whole   assemblages, rather   than   cultural   markers,   is   important   as   is   the   equivalency   of   classificatory   categories.   Furthermore,   it   must   be accepted   that   the   process   of   classification   is   inherently   continuous   as   it   must   allow   for   the   incorporation   of   new evidence as it arises. 1974b    The    Nodwell    Site .    Mercury    Series    Archaeology    Paper    22.    National    Museum    of    Man,    Ottawa.    This monograph   provides   a   thorough   description   of   the   excavation   and   analysis   of   the   mid-fourteenth   century   (Middle Ontario   Iroquois   stage,   Middleport   substage)   doublepalisaded   Nodwell   village   site   located   in   Port   Elgin,   Ontario. With    the    exception    of    middens    which    had    been    previously    destroyed    by    ploughing    and    looting    but    could nevertheless   be   located   by   soil   staining,   the   entire   settlement   of   12   longhouses   (one   of   which   was   situated   outside the    palisade)    was    excavated.    The    completeness    of    this    excavation    offered    a    rare    opportunity    to    examine hypothetical   associations   of   intra-village   habitation   and   social   groups   such   as   clans.   Evidence   of   clans   was   not found    but    conservative    versus    progressive    houses    were    identified.    The    site    is    unique    because    it    is    the    only Iroquoian    settlement    that    has    been    found    in    Bruce    County,    its    excavation    ties    with    William    D.    Finlayson’s excavation   of   the   Thede   site   for   the   first   utilization   of   flotation   in   Ontario,   and   part   of   the   site   was   reconstructed permitting insights achievable only through experiment. 1972a   Settlement   Patterns   at   the   Steward   Site .   Arch   Notes   10:2–3.   This   paper   constitutes   a   brief   statement   on the   excavation   of   two   house   structures   at   the   1450   CE   to   1500   CE   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoian   Steward   site.   On   the basis   of   wider   than   normal   in-house   bunks   (potentially   reflecting   a   lack   of   concern   for   heat   conservation),   a relative   dearth   of   interior   house-pits,   and   extant   faunal   remains,   the   site   is   deemed   to   be   a   summer   fishing campsite. 1972b   The   Shield   Archaic .   Publications   in   Archaeology   No.   3.   National   Museum   of   Man,   Ottawa.   This   volume outlines   the   Shield   Archaic,   a   construct   pertaining   to   archaeological   evidence   in   the   Boreal   Forest   of   the   Canadian Shield   marked   by   spatial   homogeneity   and   conservative   development   using   evidence   from   habitation   sites   in Quebec,   Ontario,   Manitoba   and   the   Keewatin   District   of   the   Northwest   Territories.   Four   hypotheses   are   examined: (1)   “The   Shield   Archaic   evolved   from   a   late   Palaeo-Indian   (Plano   tradition)   cultural   base   in   the   eastern   Northwest Territories    and    probably    the    western    portions    of    the    Boreal    Forest-Canadian    Shield”;    (2)    “Plant    and    animal reoccupation   of   land   freed   by   the   retreating   Laurentide   ice   permitted   northwestern   Plano-Shield   Archaic   hunters to    expand,    particularly    in    an    easterly    direction”;    (3)    “Cultural    continuities    between    the    Shield    Archaic    and subsequent   developments   in   the   Boreal   Forest-Canadian   Shield   permit   the   speculation   that   the   Shield   Archaic people   probably   spoke   an   Algonkian   language”;   and,   (4)   “The   Shield   Archaic   populations   of   the   Keewatin   District abandoned the area some time about 1000 B.C.” 1972c   The   Dougall   Site .   Ontario   Archaeology   17:3–23.   Describing   salvage   excavations   at   the   severely   disturbed Dougall   site   (BdGu-2)   located   on   the   west   side   of   the   narrows   between   Lakes   Simcoe   and   Couchiching,   the   author states   that   the   site   was   occupied   “relatively   continuously”   for   2,000   years   as   a   fish-camp.   The   earliest   evidence found   at   the   site   pertains   to   Point   Peninsula,   followed   by   the   entire   Ontario   Iroquois   development   in   the   region with   an   emphasis   on   the   Huron,   the   Ojibwa   and,   eventually,   nineteenth-and-twentieth   century   Euro-Canadians.   Of particular   interest   is   the   observation   that   fish   bone   was   disproportionately   represented   by   cranial   bones.   The author   interprets   this   as   being   due   to   on-site   processing   of   fish   and   their   subsequent   removal   to   other   settlements for   consumption.   It   was   also   noted   that,   in   support   of   statements   in   the   ethnohistoric   literature,   there   was   a dearth of burnt fish bone. 1972d   The   Knechtel   I   Site,   Bruce   County,   Ontario .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   4.   National   Museum   of Man,   Ottawa.   The   Knechtel   I   site   is   situated   on   the   eastern   shore   of   Lake   Huron   and   excavation   has   shown   that   it was   seasonally   occupied   from   spring   to   fall   for   over   800   years   beginning   with   Archaic   peoples   (Inverhuron   Archaic) and    culminating    with    the    Initial    Woodland    (Saugeen    culture).    The    excellent    stratigraphy    of    the    site    permits assessment   of   the   cultural   deposits   through   time   and   the   material   culture   suggests   extra-societal   contacts   to   the south   and   an   economic   shift   from   fishing   to   hunting   that   corresponded   with   lowering   lake   levels.   The   author proposes   that   the   site   was   part   of   “an   unbroken   tradition,   referred   to   as   the   Inverhuron   tradition   ...   with   a   time span of more than 1,600 years.” 1972e   The   Aberdeen   Site,   Keewatin   District,   N.W.T.   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   2.   National   Museum   of Man,   Ottawa.   With   a   single   interlude,   this   caribou   crossing   located   at   the   embouchure   of   the   Thelon   River   into Aberdeen   Lake   was   utilized   on   a   seasonal   basis   for   7,000   years.   The   earliest   evidence   pertains   to   Palaeo-Indian populations,   followed   successively   by   Shield   Archaic,   Arctic   Small   Tool,   Taltheilei   Shale,   Chipewyan   and   Caribou Eskimo   hunters.   Two   house   structures,   both   attributed   to   the   Shield   Archaic,   are   described,   as   well   as   a   tool   cache. Additional text includes sections on superpositional evidence and unprovenienced recoveries. 1972f    Ontario    Prehistory:    An    Eleven-Thousand-Year    Archaeological    Outline .    National    Museum    of    Man, Ottawa.   Written   for   a   general   audience,   this   publication   provides   an   overview   of   the   archaeology   of   Ontario   from the   earliest   cultures   of   the   Palaeo-Indian   period   (Clovis   and   Plano),   to   those   of   the   Archaic   (Laurentian   and   Shield), to   those   of   the   Initial   Woodland   (Meadowood,   Saugeen-Point   Peninsula,   Princess   Point,   Laurel),   and   finally   to   the Iroquoian   tribes   and   confederacies   and   Algonkian   bands   of   the   Terminal   Woodland   Period   (Huron,   Petun,   Neutral, Erie,   St.   Lawrence   Iroquois).   The   French   edition   of   this   book,   translated   by   Roger   J.   M.   Marois,   was   published   in 1981. 1971   The   Nodwell   Site:   A   Mid-14th   Century   Iroquois   Village .   Canadian   Archaeological   Association   Bulletin   3:1- 11.   A   preliminary   statement   of   the   joint   National   Museum   of   Man   and   Royal   Ontario   Museum   excavation   of   the mid-fourteenth    century    Middleport    substage    Nodwell    site    (later    expanded    upon    by    the    author    in    a    1974 monograph),   this   paper   describes   the   excavation   strategies   employed   which   revealed   12   longhouses   and   a   double palisade   (but   no   middens),   some   of   the   interesting   features   encountered   (e.g.,   a   house   outside   of   the   stockade   and dog   burials),   and   discusses   the   presence   of   an   Iroquoian   settlement   in   a   frontier   region   nearly   80   miles   distant from its nearest cultural compatriots and hypothesizes regarding the reasons for its eventual abandonment. 1970   The   Shield   Archaic   in   Manitoba   –   A   Preliminary   Statement .   In   Ten   Thousand   Years:   Archaeology   in Manitoba,   edited   by   Walter   M.   Hlady,   pp.   29–45.   Manitoba   Archaeological   Society,   Altona,   Manitoba.   The   author describes   material   culture   derived   from   the   stratified   God’s   Lake   and   Elk   Island   sites,   outlines   his   conception   of   the Shield   Archaic,   and   offers   hypotheses   concerning   the   origin   and   spread   of   this   assemblage   which   can   be   found from   the   eastern   Northwest   Territories   to   Labrador;   including:   (1)   “The   Shield   Archaic   evolved   from   a   late   Paleo- Indian   (Plano   tradition)   cultural   base   in   the   eastern   Northwest   Territories,”   (2)   “Plant   and   animal   reoccupation   of land   freed   by   the   retreating   Laurentide   ice   permitted   northern   Plano-Shield   Archaic   hunters   to   expand;   particularly in   an   easterly   direction,”   (3)   “A   cultural   continuity   exists   between   the   Shield   Archaic   tradition   and   the   following Laurel   tradition,”   and   (4)   “The   Shield   Archaic   populations   in   the   Keewatin   District   abandoned   the   area   sometime prior to 1000 B.C.” 1969a   The   Destruction   of   Canada’s   Prehistory .   Canadian   Archaeological   Association   Bulletin   1:5–11.   (Reprinted in   1975   in   Preserving   the   Canadian   Heritage.   Royal   Society   of   Canada,   Ottawa).   This   publication   constitutes   the presidential   banquet   address   at   the   Second   Annual   Meeting   of   the   Canadian   Archaeological   Association   in   1969. Warning   his   colleagues   about   threats   to   archaeology   from   natural   disasters,   construction   and   ignorance,   the author    describes    several    means    by    which    these    could    be    mitigated,    including    organization,    education    and legislation. 1969b   (with   W.   E.   Taylor,   Jr.,   Roscoe   Wilmeth   and   W.   N.   Irving)   Canada   Before   Cartier:   A   Prehistoric   Outline . National    Museum    of    Man,    Ottawa.    A    short    illustrated    pamphlet    prepared    for    a    non-specialist    audience,    this publication   briefly   summarizes:   (1)   the   history   of   Canadian   archaeology;   (2)   the   past   as   known   with   respect   to “Canadian   Eskimo   Archaeology”,   the   “Prehistory   of   Eastern   Canada”,   the   “Prehistory   of   Western   Canada”;   and,   (3) archaeological fieldwork in 1966. It was reprinted from The Canada Year Book 1968. 1969c   A   Programme   is   Needed   to   Stop   the   Destruction   of   Prehistoric   Remains .   Science   Forum   2(5):12–14.   An adaptation   of   his   presidential   address   to   the   Canadian   Archaeological   Association,   this   paper   vehemently   exhorts a   change   in   the   treatment   of   Canada’s   non-renewable   archaeological   resources   which   are   under   dire   threat   from construction   activities,   looting,   flooding,   mining   and,   in   fact,   any   “human   or   natural   force   that   alters,   buries,   or floods   the   earth”.   Giving   examples   from   the   past,   present   and   future   across   the   country,   the   author   attempts   to impress   upon   the   reader   the   magnitude   of   the   problem.   Suggestions   for   addressing   these   issues   are   subsumed under the headings Organization, Education and Legislation. 1969d   (with   J.   E.   Anderson)   The   Bennett   Site .   Bulletin   No.   229.   National   Museum   of   Man.   Ottawa.   Excavated during   the   fall   of   1961   by   J.   N.   Emerson,   the   author’s   former   mentor   at   the   University   of   Toronto,   and   by   the   author during   the   spring   and   summer   of   1962,   the   Bennett   site   is   a   2.5-to-3-acre   site   classified   as   belonging   to   the   mid- thirteenth   century   Pickering   Branch   of   the   Early   Ontario   Iroquois   stage.   This   report,   with   a   few   notable   exceptions, concerns   the   1962   excavation.   Exposed   features   include   longhouses,   of   which   three   were   identified   and   four extrapolated,   a   double   palisade   with   intriguing   defensive   characteristics   associated   with   a   collection   of   probable missiles,   13   graves   involving   15   individuals,   five   ceramic   vessel   concentrations,   a   dog   burial,   several   deer   skull burials   and   a   cache   of   unfinished   celts.   Ceramic   data   were   analyzed   according   to   attributes   rather   than   types   and included   an   instance   of   ladder   plait   motif   and   the   use   of   black   paint.   These   data   were   compared   with   similar   data from   the   Goessens   site   (Glen   Meyer,   Early   Ontario   Iroquois   stage)   and   the   Uren   site   (Uren   substage,   Middle Ontario   Iroquois   stage)   to   test   the   hypothesis   that,   if   Pickering   peoples,   like   those   at   Bennett,   conquered   Glen Meyer   peoples,   like   those   at   Goessens,   resulting   in   settle   ments   like   Uren,   then   the   archaeological   record   should reflect    this    through    the    dissimilarity    of    the    Bennett    and    Goessens    sites    to    one    another,    the    corresponding similarity   of   Bennett   and   Uren,   and   the   middling   similarity   of   Goessens   and   Uren.   This   was,   indeed,   demonstrated with   the   exception   of   bossing   which   is   apparently   a   chronological   variable.   Addition   al   excavated   material   included sherds   belonging   to   juvenile   vessels,   a   few   smoking   pipes   relatively   simple   in   form   and   decoration,   an   abundance of   scrapers,   four   varieties   of   worked   deer   phalanges,   a   native   copper   bead   and   arrowheads   of   the   triangular   and incipient    side-notched    triangular    variety.    Of    the    former,    one    specimen    plus    a    basal    fragment    were    deemed reminiscent   of   the   Levanna   point   type   while   the   rest   were   interpreted   as   being   more   akin   to   the   Madison   point type. 1968a   The   Origins   of   New   World   Ceramics   as   Seen   from   Eastern   Canada.   In   Proceedings,   VIIIth   International Congress   of   Anthropological   and   Ethnological   Sciences,   Tokyo   and   Kyoto.   Volume   III:   Ethnology   and   Archaeology, pp.   325–26.   Science   Council   of   Japan,   Tokyo.   The   author   briefly   discusses   diffusion   versus   independent   invention of   ceramics   in   Eastern   Canada.   He   concludes   that   all   but   “Norton   check   and   linear   stamped   pottery   of   coastal Alaska   and   Yukon”   and,   possibly,   some   early   pottery   associated   with   the   Laurel   tradition,   were   the   result   of independent invention. 1968b   The   Michipicoten   Site .   In   Contributions   to   Anthropology   VI:   Archaeology,   pp.   1–85.   Bulletin   No.   224. National   Museum   of   Man,   Ottawa.   Using   ethnohistoric   evidence   to   attribute   the   historic   components   of   the stratified   Michipicoten   site   to   the   Ojibwa   and   the   direct   historic   approach   to   demonstrate   continuous   occupation by   the   same   people   to   1100   CE,   this   paper   offers   a   description   of   features   and   cultural   material   excavated   by   the author   in   1961.   He   concludes   that   ceramic   material   culture   exhibits   evidence   of   south   and   southeast   influences but that lithic material culture was of local origin. Evidence of trade was limited. 1968c    The    Boreal    Forest .    In    Science,    History    and    Hudson    Bay.    Volume    I,    edited    by    C.    S.    Beals,    pp.    55–68. Department   of   Energy,   Mines   and   Resources,   Ottawa.   This   paper   presents   a   discussion   of   archaeological   evidence as   it   pertains   to   Palaeo-Indians,   Archaic   and   Woodland   peoples   of   the   Boreal   Forest   area   flanking   Hudson   Bay.   The homo   geneity   observed   from   the   Archaic   to   Late   Woodland   stages   is   suggested   to   be   primarily   a   reflection   of environmental conditions. 1968d    Cree    Culture    History    in    the    Southern    Indian    Lake    Region .    In    Contributions    to    Anthropology,    VII: Archaeology,   pp.   1–31.   Bulletin   No.   232.   National   Museum   of   Man,   Ottawa.   Archaeological   surveys   of   the   Southern Indian   Lake   region   of   Northern   Manitoba   and   excavated   evidence   from   the   historic   MacBride   site   and   the   stratified prehistoric   Neck   site   indicate   that   significant   occupation   of   the   area   was   absent   prior   to   the   tenth   century   but present   from   that   time   to   the   historic   period.   Cultural   development   was   seen   to   be   “gradual   and   conservative” until   the   historic   period   and   the   direct   historical   approach   allows   it   to   be   associated   with   a   Cree   band.   Also discussed   are   Blackduck   and   Selkirk   heartlands   and   areas   between   that   exhibit   evidence   of   blending,   previous associations of Selkirk with the Cree, and the author’s suggestion that Blackduck may be identified with the Ojibwa. 1968e    The    Application    of    the    Direct    Historical    Approach    to    the    Iroquois    and    the    Ojibwa .    Ethnohistory 15(1):96–111.   This   short   but   detailed   article   offers   a   discussion   of   the   relative   potential   and   difficulties   involved   in applying   the   direct   historical   approach   to   two   entirely   different   archaeological   and   historical   entities:   the   former Iroquoian   inhabitants   of   the   province   of   Ontario   and   an   amalgamation   of   Ojibwa   bands   from   the   north   shores   of the    Upper    Great    Lakes.    A    central    theme    is    social    relations;    for    example,    matrilocality    for    the    Iroquois    and patrilocality for the Ojibwa. 1967a   Type   and   Attribute   Analysis:   Their   Application   to   Iroquois   Culture   History .   In   Iroquois   Culture,   History, and   Prehistory:   Proceedings   of   the   1965   Conference   on   Iroquois   Research,   edited   by   Elisabeth   Tooker,   pp.   99–100. The   University   of   the   State   of   New   York,   the   State   Education   Department,   and   the   New   York   State   Museum   and Science    Service,    Albany    (Reprinted    with    a    short    addendum    in    Ontario    Archaeology    (1968)    11:65–69).    Wright discusses the pros and cons of type versus attribute analysis and ultimately favours attributes over types. 1967b   The   Laurel   Tradition   and   the   Middle   Woodland   Period .   Bulletin   No.   217.   National   Museum   of   Canada, Ottawa.   In   this   volume,   the   author   offers   his   readers   a   preliminary   synthesis   of   archaeological   data   pertaining   to the    Laurel    Tradition    in    Ontario,    Manitoba,    Saskatchewan    and    Minnesota.    Sixteen    Northern    Ontario    sites    are described   before   select   components   are   compared   with   evidence   from   Minnesota,   Manitoba   and   Saskatchewan, and   Middle   Woodland   complexes   of   the   Northeast.   Four   hypotheses   are   considered:   (1)   “Early   Woodland   ceramics were   originally   derived   from   the   south   and   are   not   of   Asiatic   origin,”   (2)   “The   Laurel   Tradition   is   of   Asiatic   origin,”   (3) “The   Hopewell   Tradition   is   of   southern   derivation   and   not   of   Asiatic   origin,”   and   (4)   “The   Point   Peninsula   and Saugeen   foci   and   related   foci   in   Canada   and   northeastern   United   States   are   the   product   of   variable   blending between    the    Asiatic-derived    Laurel    Tradition    and    the    southern    derived    Hopewell    Tradition    onto    an    earlier, indigenous Archaic or Early Woodland cultural base.” 1967c   The   Pic   River   Site .   In   Contributions   to   Anthropology   V,   pp.   54–99.   Bulletin   No.   206.   National   Museum   of Canada,   Ottawa.   This   report   describes   analyses   undertaken   on   the   stratified   Pic   River   site   located   on   the   north shore    of    Lake    Superior.    Ranging    from    950    CE    to    an    early    eighteenth-century    Ojibwa    occupation,    the    three components   provide   insights   with   respect   to   continuity,   the   effects   of   the   fur   trade   and   external   relations.   For instance,   Blackduck   focus   ceramics   are   found   throughout   the   sequence   and   are,   therefore,   not   solely   attributable to   “…   a   late   exodus   to   the   north   of   one   division   of   the   Sioux”   but   may,   in   fact,   relate   to   the   Ojibwa   as   well   as   the Assiniboine.   In   contrast,   the   presence   of   different   ceramic   complexes   in   Stratum   I   may   ultimately   reflect   greater mobility   and   fusion   of   bands   in   response   to   the   fur   trade.   In   Stratum   II,   a   single   anculosa   bead   signifies   contact with   the   southeast   while   the   appearance   of   Ontario   Iroquois   Tradition   Pickering   ceramics   in   Stratum   III   indicates that   Blackduck   and   Pickering   were   “…   coeval   and   …   their   ranges   of   influence   overlapped.”   The   author   concludes with apposite observations concerning ethnic determination in the region. 1966   The   Ontario   Iroquois   Tradition .   Bulletin   No.   210.   National   Museum   of   Canada,   Ottawa.   Focusing   upon   the Iroquoian   populations   of   Ontario,   with   the   exception   of   the   St.   Lawrence   Iroquoians,   the   author   utilizes   a   variety   of material   culture   and   settlement   pattern   evidence   to   construct   a   taxonomy   to   account   for   the   broad   regional patterns   he   observed   dating   to,   approximately,   1000   CE   to   1650   CE.   During   the   Early   Ontario   Iroquois   stage   (1000 CE   to   1300   CE),   two   groups   referred   to   as   Glen   Meyer   and   Pickering   were,   respectively,   seen   to   occupy   lands   west and   east   of   the   Niagara   Escarpment.   Toward   the   conclusion   of   this   stage,   a   relative   degree   of   homogenization   was observed   in   the   archaeological   record,   the   nature   of   which   led   the   author   to   hypothesize   that   Pickering   conquered and   absorbed   Glen   Meyer.   The   Middle   Ontario   Iroquois   stage   (1300   CE   to   1400   CE)   is   divided   into   two   sub-stages, Uren   (1300   CE   to   1350   CE)   and   Middleport   (1350   CE   to   1400   CE).   The   horizon   concept   is   introduced   during   the Middleport   substage   to   explain   the   rapid   spread   of   an   elaborate   smoking   pipe   complex.   The   Late   Ontario   Iroquois stage   (1400   CE   to   1650   CE)   witnessed   a   divergence   from   Middleport   into   the   four   historically   known   tribes/tribal confederacies:   Huron,   Petun,   Neutral   and   Erie.   The   Huron–Petun   branch   was   further   divided   into   northern   and southern divisions. 1965   A   Regional   Examination   of   Ojibwa   Culture   History .   Anthropologica   N.S.   VII(2):191–227.   The   archaeology   of the   region   north   of   the   Upper   Great   Lakes   is   complicated   by   several   factors.   Historic   records   indicate   that   the   area was   inhabited   by   Algonquian-speaking   people   with   occasional   Iroquoian   incursions,   but   there   is   considerable confusion   in   the   literature   regarding   the   multitude   of   names   given   to   tribes,   clans,   bands   and   geographic   regions. Archaeological   sites   are   scarce   and   frequently   multi-component   with   thin   and   intermixed   deposits.   Excavation often   yields   only   small   samples.   On   the   positive   side,   the   multi-component   nature   of   the   sites   and   the   fact   that   the most   recent   deposits   date   to   the   historic   period,   makes   the   direct   historical   approach   a   suitable   analytical   tool. Taking   the   precaution   of   applying   “…   the   broader   ethnic   designation   of   Ojibwa   to   the   historic   archaeological components   involved,”   the   author   assesses   three   historic   and   three   prehistoric   Ojibwa   components   concluding that:   (1)   ceramic   artifacts   reflect   the   influence   of   several   different   foreign   traditions   with   a   time   lag   from   their source   of   origin   and,   there   fore,   cannot   be   used   to   elucidate   spatial   and   temporal   relationships   but,   (2)   in   contrast, stone tool design was a local phenomena and, consequently, can be used to examine such relationships. 1964   (with   René   Levesque   and   F.   Fitz   Osborne)   Le   gisement   de   Batiscan.   Études   Anthropologiques .   Numéro   6. Musée   National   du   Canada,   Ottawa.   The   author’s   contribution   to   this   publication   concerns   the   analysis   and interpretation    of    archaeological    evidence    from    the    Early    Woodland    Batiscan    site    located    near    Trois-Rivières, Quebec. 1963a   (with   J.   E.   Anderson)   The   Donaldson   Site .   Bulletin   No.   184.   National   Museum   of   Canada,   Ottawa.   Significant erosion   of   this   site   by   the   Saugeen   River   instigated   the   excavation   of   extant   archaeological   evidence   including   a small    cemetery,    two    house    structures    and    three    middens    through    a    joint    National    Museum    of    Canada    and University   of   Toronto   venture.   Each   of   these   is   described   as   is   the   ceramic,   lithic   and   worked   animal   bone   analysis. Originally   classified   by   T.   E.   Lee   as   Point   Peninsula   Focus   of   the   Vine   Valley   Aspect,   this   designation   was   revised   to Middle   Woodland   period,   Saugeen   Focus.   Comparison   with   the   Inverhuron   site   and   the   earliest   component   of   the Burley   site   resulted   in   the   author   describing   the   Donaldson   site   as   the   “major   defining   component   of   the   Saugeen Focus.” 1963b   An   Archaeological   Survey   Along   the   North   Shore   of   Lake   Superior .   Anthropology   Papers,   No.   3:1–9. National   Museum   of   Canada,   Ottawa.   Reporting   on   his   archaeological   survey   and   excavation   activities   during   the summer   of   1960   from   “Sault   Ste.   Marie,   Ontario,   and   the   Manitoba   border,   extending   along   the   north   shore   of Lake   Superior   and   the   International   Boundary,”   the   author   briefly   summarizes   evidence   of   Palaeo-Indian,   Archaic, Woodland and Puckasaw Pits he encountered. 1962   A   Distributional   Study   of   Some   Archaic   Traits   in   Southern   Ontario .   In   Contributions   to   Anthropology 1960.   Part   1,   pp.   124–42.   National   Museum   of   Canada,   Ottawa.   Using   Archaic   artifacts   acquired   by   the   Royal Ontario   Museum   over   the   course   of   the   preceding   50   years,   the   author   considers   seven   diagnostic   traits   from   “a distributional   and   classificatory   point   of   view”   in   order   to   acquire   a   better   understanding   of   the   Archaic   in   south ern Ontario and the Northeast in general. 1960   The   Middleport   Horizon .   Anthropologica   II(1):113–20.   Noting   Richard   S.   MacNeish’s   initial   suggestion   of   a “Middleport   Horizon,”   the   author   describes   his   further   examination   of   this   concept   utilizing   six   Ontario   sites   where three   of   MacNeish’s   ceramic   types   (Middleport   Oblique,   Lawson   Incised   and   Ontario   Horizontal)   were   found   to predominate,   while   correspondences   between   the   sites   were   also   noted   with   respect   to   pipes,   projectile   types, bone   artifacts   and   settlement   patterns.   He   also   observed   modified   deer   phalanges   of   the   cup-and-pin   variety   at each   of   the   sites.   Some   of   the   ideas   expressed   in   this   paper   were   later   modified   somewhat   in   The   Ontario   Iroquois Tradition (1966), of which the Middleport Horizon constitutes a part. 1956   Comments   on   the   Bruce .   New   Pages   of   Prehistory:   Archaeological   Researches   in   Ontario.   Ontario   Historical Society,   Toronto.   This   short   piece   describes   the   survey   of   the   Bruce   Peninsula   by   the   author   and   Fritz   Knechtel   in 1956.   This   reconnaissance   included   the   campsites   of   pre-ceramic   peoples   described   in   the   text   as   Laurentian   but annotated   in   his   personal   copy   as   “Inverhuron,”   a   mound   feature   behind   one   of   these   sites   containing   a   chopper and   human   bones   covered   in   red   ochre,   Point   Peninsula   archaeological   and   burial   sites   including   that   of   a   child with 125 small marine shell beads and Iroquois sites. 1955   (with   Robert   C.   Dailey)   The   Malcolm   Site:   A   Late   Stage   of   the   Middle   Point   Peninsula   Culture   in   Eastern Ontario .   Transactions   of   the   Royal   Canadian   Institute   XXXI(1):3–23.   Written   with   another   University   of   Toronto student   under   the   aegis   of   T.   F.   McIlwraith,   this   report   describes   the   salvage   excavation   of   the   Malcolm   site situated   on   the   St.   Lawrence   River   near   Cornwall,   Ontario.   Evidence   of   three   separate   occupations   was   noted: historic,   Iroquois,   and—the   most   prominent   of   the   three—Point   Peninsula.   Data   resulting   from   the   excavation   was treated   under   the   following   headings:   Non-Ceramic   Remains   (Bone,   Copper,   and   Stone),   Ceramic   Remains   (170 rimsherds,   108   of   which   were   analyzable)   and   Features.   Considerable   quantities   of   lithic   artifacts,   particularly scrapers, were found. Note The   foregoing   does   not   constitute   all   of   Jim   Wright’s   publications.   Numerous   regional   society   newsletter   items, encyclopaedia contributions and fieldwork updates have been excluded. © Joyce M. Wright

Annotated Bibliography of

James V. Wright’s

Publications

© A.H.B.I. Associates Inc.
2006   The   Archaic   Conference   at   Orono:   A   Critique   and   Overview.    In The   Archaic   of   the   Far   Northeast,   edited   by   David   Sanger   and   M.   A.   P. Renouf,    pp.    437–72.    The    University    of    Maine    Press,    Orono.    Published posthumously,   this   contribution   constitutes   a   constructive   critique   of   13 papers    presented    at    the    Archaic    Conference    held    in    Orono,    Maine,    in October   2001.   The   papers   range   in   time   from   6,000   BCE   to   1,000   BCE   and in   space   from   Maine   to   Quebec   and   Newfoundland-Labrador.   The   author concludes    by    noting    the    positive    development    whereby    many    of    the contributions    deal    with    subject    matter    that    extends    beyond    narrowly defined     regions     and     the     corresponding     extension     of     “comparative perspectives   and   problem   orientations.”   He   warns,   however,   that   this   in turn   will   ultimately   require   the   revision   of   current   classification   schemes and   nomenclature.   With   respect   to   the   latter,   he   suggests   that   the   very term “Archaic” is derogatory. 2004a   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada .   Volume   III,   Part   1 (A.D.   500   to   European   Contact) .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   152. Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   Given   the   amount   of   data available   pertaining   to   this   time   period,   the   author   found   it   necessary   to split   this   volume   into   two   parts.   Part   1   deals   with   Maritime   Algonquian,   St. Lawrence    Iroquois,    Ontario    Iroquois,    Glen    Meyer/Western    Basin,    and Northern   Algonquian   cultures.   As   with   all   of   the   volumes   in   this   series,   the contents   are   arranged   in   the   following   manner:   Précis,   Cultural   Origins and      Descendants,      Technology,      Subsistence,      Settlement      Patterns, Cosmology,   External   Relationships,   Human   Biology,   Inferences   on   Society, and Limitations in the Evidence. 2004b     The     Gordon     Island     North     Site     and     Cultural     Settlement Distributions   Along   the   Upper   St.   Lawrence   River   Valley .   In   A   Passion for   the   Past:   Papers   in   Honour   of   James   F.   Pendergast,   edited   by   James   V. Wright   and   Jean-Luc   Pilon,   pp.   321–93.   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper 164.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   This   paper   represents   an examination   of   the   pre-European   human   past   along   a   significant   portion of   the   St.   Lawrence   River   which,   acting   as   a   link   between   the   Atlantic   coast and   the   mainland   interior,   functioned   as   a   major   communication   route   for many    different    cultures    for    many    thousands    of    years.    Starting    with    a description   of   the   Gordon   Island   North   site   (BbGa-2),   the   author   then examines   settlement   patterns   along   the   Upper   St.   Lawrence   River   and, finally,   discusses   “…   a   selective   consideration”   of   some   of   the   non-ceramic artifacts     excavated     from     Lake     St.     Francis     island     sites.     Overall,     a tremendous    amount    of    mobility    and    cultural    interaction    is    apparent. Methodological   considerations   include   the   (mis-)use   of   artifacts   deemed to   be   culturally   diagnostic   (as   opposed   to   entire   assemblages),   ¼   inch screening,   and   making   cultural   taxonomic   assertions   on   the   basis   of   a single class of material culture (e.g., ceramics). 2004c     James     F.     Pendergast:     Blurring     the     Amateur–Professional Dichotomy .    In    A    Passion    for    the    Past:    Papers    in    Honour    of    James    F. Pendergast,    edited    by    James    V.    Wright    and    Jean-Luc    Pilon,    pp.    1–4. Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   164.   Canadian   Museum   of   Civilization, Gatineau.   Intended   as   a   brief   introduction   to   the   man   honoured   in   this publication,     this     paper     emphasizes     the     important     contribution     to Canadian archaeology of both amateurs and professionals.   Retiring   from   the   Canadian   Army   as   a   Lieutenant-Colonel, James    F.    Pendergast    became    the    Assistant    Director    of    the    National Museum    of    Man    where    he    initiated    the    ongoing    Mercury    publication series   and   took   up   the   task   of   trying   to   understand   the   St.   Lawrence Iroquoians,    a    topic    largely    abandoned    since    the    time    of    William    J. Wintemberg.   Jim   Pendergast   authored   seven   monographs   and   more   than 50   articles   and,   among   other   awards,   received   an   honourary   doctorate from McGill University. 2003   Preface .   (Eng./Fr.)   In   Île   aux   Allumettes:   L’Archaïque   supérieur   dans l’Outaouais,   edited   by   Norman   Clermont,   Claude   Chapdelaine   and   Jacques Cinq-Mars,   pp.   11–28,   Paléo-Québec   30.   Recherches   amérindiennes   au Québec,   Montréal   and   the   Musée   canadien   des   civilisations,   Gatineau. Concluding   that   this   volume,   together   with   one   previously   published   on the   nearby   Morrison   Island   site,   should   be   considered   mandatory   reading for   anyone   interested   in   the   Northeast   North   American   Archaic,   in   part because    together    they    offer    detailed    examinations    of    a    body    of    data remarkably   unplagued   by   the   problem   of   cultural   admixture,   the   author congratulates   the   respective   authors   of   the   different   chapters   for   their insightful contributions and discusses select issues raised therein. 2002   Elmer   Harp’s   Contribution   to   Bush   Archaeology .   In   Honoring   Our Elders:    A    History    of    Eastern    Arctic    Archaeology,    edited    by    William    W. Fitzhugh,   Stephen   Loring   and   Daniel   Odess,   pp.   47–52,   Contributions   to Circumpolar     Anthropology     2.     National     Museum     of     Natural     History, Smithsonian   Institution,   Washington,   D.C.   The   author   focuses   upon   Harp’s influence   on   his   own   work   in   bush   archaeology   (“bush”   being   defined   as “the    Boreal    Forest    and    Lichen    Woodland    vegetation    provinces”).    This included    excavation    of    the    Aberdeen    and    Grant    Lake    sites    and,    more generally,   the   inspiration   afforded   by   Harp’s   interest   in   regions   showing evidence   of   habitation   by   different   archaeological   cultures   (permitting   the examination   of   such   issues   as   cultural   replacement   and   interaction),   his description   of   artifacts   in   a   manner   conducive   to   use   by   other   scholars,   his insightful     interpretations,     the     relevance     of     his     interests     to     broad anthropological   considerations,   his   excellent   sketches   of   archaeological sites   and   topography,   and   the   fact   that   he   was   the   first   to   undertake archaeological reconnaissance in a number of different regions. 1999a     Archaeological     Cultural     Constructs     and     Systematics:     A Proposed   Classification   System   for   Canada .   In   Taming   the   Taxonomy: Toward    a    New    Understanding    of    Great    Lakes    Archaeology,    edited    by Ronald      F.      Williamson      and      Christopher      M.      Watts,      pp.      289–300. eastendbooks,   Toronto.   Prepared   in   response   to   a   session   held   during   the 1997   joint   meeting   of   the   Ontario   Archaeological   Society   and   the   Midwest Archaeological   Conference,   the   author   laments   the   all   too   often   parochial foci   of   Canadian   archaeologists   when   it   comes   to   the   development   of broad    spatial    and    temporal    cultural    taxonomies.    As    there    is    no    more important    tool    to    research    of    any    type    than    classification,    the    author attempts   to   redress   this   shortcoming   by   offering   his   own   conception   of   a national   cultural   taxonomy.   This   is   the   same   taxonomy   utilized   in   his   A History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada   series   and   is   presented   in   the   hope that   it   will   foster   further   discussion   and   in   the   full   expectation   that   it   will be    refined    over    time.    Indeed,    it    was    designed    to    be    spatially    and temporally     flexible     for     just     this     purpose.     Utilizing     environmentally premised   nomenclature,   it   is   also   hierarchical,   proceeds   from   the   general to   the   specific,   and   will   facilitate   communication   between   professionals and amateurs alike. 1999b   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of   Canada.   Volume   II   (1,000 B.C.–A.D.   500) .   Mercury   Series   Archaeology   Paper   152.   Canadian   Museum of   Civilization,   Gatineau.   The   second   volume   of   this   series   deals   with   the period    1000    BCE    to    500    CE    and    includes    chapters    on    Late    Maritime culture,   Late   Great   Lakes–St.   Lawrence   culture,   Late   Eastern   Shield   culture, Late   Western   Shield   culture,   Late   Plains   culture,   Late   Plateau   culture,   Late West   Coast   culture,   Late   Northwest   Interior   culture   and   Middle   Palaeo- Eskimo   culture.   Like   the   first   volume,   each   chapter   contains   the   following subsections:     Précis,     Cultural     Origins     and     Descendants,     Technology, Subsistence,    Settlement    Patterns,    Cosmology,    External    Relationships, Human Biology, Inferences on Society, and Limitations in the Evidence. 1999c   In   the   Eye   of   the   Beholder,   or   What   is   a   Meadowood   Point?   Kewa   5&6:20–27.   Written   in   response   to   an   article   by   Chris   Ellis,   “Some Sites   and   Artifacts   I   Have   Known:   the   Welke-Tonkonoh   Site   Revisited,   or What     is     a     Meadowood     Point?,”     that     appeared     in     the     Ontario Archaeological      Society,      London      Chapter      newsletter      Kewa,      Wright addresses   criticisms   therein   that   stemmed   from   a   section   of   his   own   A History    of    the    Native    People    of    Canada,    Volume    II.    He    clarifies    his interpretation   of   this   point   type   as   “the   first   convincing   evidence   for   the diffusion    of    the    bow    and    arrow    weapon    system    into    eastern    North America,”   buttresses   his   warning   against   its   use   as   a   cultural   marker   by pointing   out   that   it   appears   in   other   than   Meadowood   assemblages,   and emphasizes    that    measurements    of    the    haft    portion    and    neck    are    of greater utility than the maximum thickness. 1998   Foreword .   In   Iroquoian   Peoples   of   the   Land   of   Rocks   and   Water,   A.D. 1000-1650:   A   Study   in   Settlement   Archaeology,   4   volumes,   by   William   D. Finlayson,    pp.    xi–xvi.    London    Museum    of    Archaeology,    London.    In    this introduction   to   William   D.   Finlayson’s   mammoth   community   settlement study   of   the   Crawford   Lake   region,   the   author   expresses   admiration   for both   the   scope   and   originality   of   the   work   described   therein.   Of   particular note   was   the   refinement   of   his   own   Middle   Ontario   Iroquois   dates   (1300 CE   to   1400   CE)   to   1330   CE   to   1504   CE   made   possible   by   the   innovative   use of   varves   correlated   with   archaeological   data   and   the   discussion   of   further evidence    supporting    his    Conquest    Theory.    The    primary    significance    of these   volumes,   however,   is   in   the   provision   of   data   suitable   for   use   by other   researchers   with   different   research   foci.   The   author   does,   however, suggest   that   Finlayson   might   in   the   future   amplify   his   Crawford   Lake   study by    incorporating    data    from    individual    house    structures    which    could potentially   provide   a   wealth   of   information   relevant   to   clans   and   other social groups. 1996    A    History    of    the    Native    People    of    Canada:    Genesis    of    a Synthesis .    Ontario    Archaeology    62:4–9.    This    short    paper    constitutes    a description    of    how    the    author    came    to    write    the    first    synthesis    of Canadian   archaeology,   the   multi-volume   A   History   of   the   Native   People   of Canada.   Fully   aware   of   the   idiosyncratic   nature   of   such   a   task   and   the   risks inherent   in   gathering   together   a   morass   of   theretofore   strictly   regional data   and   organizing   it   into   a   coherent   whole,   he   nevertheless   set   upon this   course   of   action   because   he   saw   the   need   for   a   general   reference work   of   such   scope   that   would   be   accessible   to   both   scholarly   and   lay audiences. 1995a     A     History     of     the     Native     People     of     Canada,